Arginine

Arginine

Courtesy :
1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arginine
2. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/875.html%5B—%5D<>
3.
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/l-arginine/NS_patient-arginine
Arginine (abbreviated as Arg or R)is an α-amino acid.
The L-form is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids.
At the level of molecular genetics, in the structure of the messenger ribonucleic acid mRNA, CGU, CGC, CGA, CGG, AGA, and AGG, are the triplets of nucleotide bases or codons that codify for arginine during protein synthesis.
In mammals, arginine is classified as a semiessential or conditionally essential amino acid, depending on the developmental stage and health status of the individual.
Preterm infants are unable to synthesize or create arginine internally, making the amino acid nutritionally essential for them.There are some conditions that put an increased demand on the body for the synthesis of L-arginine, including surgical or other trauma, sepsis and burns.
Arginine was first isolated from a lupin seedling extract in 1886 by the Swiss chemist Ernst Schultze.
In general, most people do not need to take arginine supplements because the body usually produces enough.
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Identifiers CAS number 74-79-3 Y PubChem 6322 ChemSpider 227 Y UNII 94ZLA3W45F Y KEGG C02385 Y ChEMBL CHEMBL179653 Y IUPHAR ligand 721

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Properties Molecular formula C6H14N4O2 Molar mass 174.2 g mol−1
Structure and
properties n, εr, etc. Thermodynamic
data Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
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Structure
The amino acid side chain of arginine consists of a 3-carbon aliphatic straight chain, the distal end of which is capped by a complex guanidinium group.With a pKa of 12.48, the guanidinium group is positively charged in neutral, acidic and even most basic environments, and thus imparts basic chemical properties to arginine. Because of the conjugation between the double bond and the nitrogen lone pairs, the positive charge is delocalized, enabling the formation of multiple H-bonds.
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Sources of Arginine :
Dietary sources
Arginine is a conditionally nonessential amino acid, meaning most of the time it can be manufactured by the human body, and does not need to be obtained directly through the diet. The biosynthetic pathway however does not produce sufficient arginine, and some must still be consumed through diet. Individuals who have poor nutrition or certain physical conditions may be advised to increase their intake of foods containing arginine. Arginine is found in a wide variety of foods, including[5]:
Animal sources
dairy products (e.g. cottage cheese, ricotta, milk, yogurt, whey protein drinks), beef, pork (e.g. bacon, ham), gelatin , poultry (e.g. chicken and turkey light meat), wild game (e.g. pheasant, quail), seafood (e.g. halibut, lobster, salmon, shrimp, snails, tuna)
Plant sources
wheat germ and flour, buckwheat, granola, oatmeal, peanuts, nuts (coconut, pecans, cashews, walnuts, almonds, Brazil nuts, hazelnuts, pinenuts), seeds (pumpkin, sesame, sunflower), chick peas, cooked soybeans, Phalaris canariensis (canaryseed or ALPISTE)
Biosynthesis
Arginine is synthesized from citrulline by the sequential action of the cytosolic enzymes argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) and argininosuccinate lyase (ASL). This is energetically costly, as the synthesis of each molecule of argininosuccinate requires hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine monophosphate (AMP); i.e., two ATP equivalents.
Citrulline can be derived from multiple sources:
from arginine via nitric oxide synthase (NOS)
from ornithine via catabolism of proline or glutamine/glutamate
from asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) via DDAH
The pathways linking arginine, glutamine, and proline are bidirectional. Thus, the net utilization or production of these amino acids is highly dependent on cell type and developmental stage.
On a whole-body basis, synthesis of arginine occurs principally via the intestinal–renal axis, wherein epithelial cells of the small intestine, which produce citrulline primarily from glutamine and glutamate, collaborate with the proximal tubule cells of the kidney, which extract citrulline from the circulation and convert it to arginine, which is returned to the circulation. Consequently, impairment of small bowel or renal function can reduce endogenous arginine synthesis, thereby increasing the dietary requirement.
Synthesis of arginine from citrulline also occurs at a low level in many other cells, and cellular capacity for arginine synthesis can be markedly increased under circumstances that also induce iNOS. Thus, citrulline, a coproduct of the NOS-catalyzed reaction, can be recycled to arginine in a pathway known as the citrulline-NO or arginine-citrulline pathway. This is demonstrated by the fact that in many cell types, citrulline can substitute for arginine to some degree in supporting NO synthesis. However, recycling is not quantitative because citrulline accumulates along with nitrate and nitrite, the stable end-products of NO, in NO-producing cells
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Function of Arginine
Arginine plays an important role in cell division, the healing of wounds, removing ammonia from the body, immune function, and the release of hormones.
Arginine taken in combination with proanthocyanidins or yohimbine,has also been used as a treatment for erectile dysfunction.
The benefits and functions attributed to oral supplementation of L-arginine include:
Precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO)
Reduces healing time of injuries (particularly bone)
Quickens repair time of damaged tissue
Helps decrease blood pressure
Proteins
The distributing basics of the moderate structure found in geometry, charge distribution and ability to form multiple H-bonds make arginine ideal for binding negatively charged groups. For this reason, arginine prefers to be on the outside of the proteins where it can interact with the polar environment.
Incorporated in proteins, arginine can also be converted to citrulline by PAD enzymes. In addition, arginine can be methylated by protein methyltransferases.
Precursor
Arginine is the immediate precursor of NO, urea, ornithine and agmatine; is necessary for the synthesis of creatine; and can also be used for the synthesis of polyamines (mainly through ornithine and to a lesser degree through agmatine), citrulline, and glutamate. As a precursor of nitric oxide, arginine may have a role in the treatment of some conditions where vasodilation is required.The presence of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a close relative, inhibits the nitric oxide reaction; therefore, ADMA is considered a marker for vascular disease, just as L-arginine is considered a sign of a healthy endothelium.
Treatment of dentin hypersensitivity
Arginine (8%) in dental products (e.g. toothpaste) provides effective relief from sensitive teeth by depositing a dentin-like mineral, containing calcium and phosphate, within the dentin tubules and in a protective layer on the dentin surface.
Treatment of herpes simplex virus
An unproven claim is that a low ratio of arginine to lysine may be of benefit in the treatment of herpes simplex virus. For more information, refer to Herpes – Treatment also see journal article.
Possible increased risk of death after supplementation following heart attack
A clinical trial found that patients taking an L-arginine supplement following a heart attack found no change in the heart’s vascular tone or decrease in the symptoms of congestive heart failure (the hearts’ ability to pump). In fact, six more patients who were taking L-arginine died than those taking a placebo resulting in early termination of the study with the recommendation that the supplement not be used by heart attack patients.Despite these findings, the supplement is still widely marketed as beneficial for the heart.
Potential medical uses
Lung inflammation and asthma
The Mayo Clinic web page on L-arginine reports that inhalation of L-arginine can increase lung inflammation and worsen asthma
Growth hormone
Arginine may stimulate the secretion of growth hormone, and is used in growth hormone stimulation tests.
MELAS syndrome
Several trials delved into effects of L-arginine in MELAS syndrome, a mitochondrial disease.
Sepsis
Cellular arginine biosynthetic capacity determined by activity of argininosuccinate synthetase (AS) is induced by the same mediators of septic response—endotoxin and cytokines—that induce nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the enzyme responsible for nitric oxide synthesis.
Malate salt
The malate salt of arginine can also be used during the treatment of alcoholic hepatitis and advanced cirrhosis.
Pre-eclampsia
A preliminary study of supplementation with L-arginine and antioxidant vitamins showed that this combination may help to combat abnormally high blood pressure during high risk pregnancies.

L-Arginine
* Formula: C6H14N4O2
* Molecular weight: 174.2010
* IUPAC Standard InChI:
o InChI=1S/C6H14N4O2/c7-4(5(11)12)2-1-3-10-6(8)9/h4H,1-3,7H2,(H,11,12)(H4,8,9,10)/t4-/m1/s1
* IUPAC Standard InChIKey:
ODKSFYDXXFIFQN-SCSAIBSYSA-N
* CAS Registry Number: 74-79-3
* Chemical structure: C6H14N4O2
This structure is also available as a 2d Mol file
. * Stereoisomers:
o D-Arginine
* Other names:
Arginine;
Arginine, L-;
L-(+)-Arginine;
Norvaline, 5-[(aminoiminomethyl)amino]-;
Ornithine, N5-(aminoiminomethyl)-;
Pentanoic acid, 2-amino-5-[(aminoiminomethyl)amino]-;
Pentanoic acid, 2-amino-5-[(aminoiminomethyl)amino]-, (S\
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Possibly effective for…
Improving recovery after surgery. Taking L-arginine with ribonucleic acid (RNA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) before surgery or afterwards seems to help reduce the recovery time, reduce the number of infections, and improve wound healing after surgery.
Congestive heart failure. Taking L-arginine along with usual treatment seems to help eliminate extra fluids that are a problem in congestive heart failure. But taking L-arginine doesn’t always improve exercise tolerance or quality of life. L-arginine should not be used instead of the usual treatments ordered by a healthcare provider.
Chest pain associated with coronary artery disease (angina pectoris). Taking L-arginine seems to decrease symptoms and improve exercise tolerance and quality of life in people with angina. But L-arginine doesn’t seem to improve the disease itself.
Bladder inflammation. Taking L-arginine seems to improve symptoms, but it may take up to three months of treatment to see improvement.
Wasting and weight loss in people with HIV/AIDS, when used with hydroxymethylbutyrate (HMB) and glutamine. This combination seems to increase body weight, particularly lean body mass, and improve the immune system.
Preventing loss of effect of nitroglycerin in people with angina pectoris.
Problems with erections of the penis (erectile dysfunction).
Improving kidney function in kidney transplant patients taking cyclosporine.
Preventing inflammation of the digestive tract in premature infants.
Cramping pain and weakness in the legs associated with blocked arteries (intermittent claudication).
Possibly ineffective for…
Heart attack. Taking L-arginine does not seem to help prevent a heart attack. It also doesn’t seem to be beneficial for treating a heart attack after it has occurred. In fact, there is concern that L-arginine might be harmful for people after a recent heart attack. Don’t take L-arginine if you have had a recent heart attack.
Pre-eclampsia, an increase in blood pressure during pregnancy. Taking L-arginine doesn’t seem to lower diastolic blood pressure (the second number) in women with pre-eclampsia in their 28th to 36th week of pregnancy.
Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for…
Migraine headache. Taking L-arginine by mouth along with the painkiller ibuprofen seems to be effective for treating migraine headache. This combination sometimes starts to work within 30 minutes. But it’s hard to know how much of the pain relief is due to L-arginine, since ibuprofen can relieve migraine pain on its own.
Decreased mental function in the elderly (senile dementia). Limited research suggests that L-arginine might improve senile dementia.
Improving healing of diabetic foot ulcers. There is interest in using L-arginine for preventing diabetic foot ulcers. Applying L-arginine to the feet seems to improve circulation in people with diabetes, which might be helpful in preventing ulcers. But if there is already an ulcer on the foot, injecting L-arginine under the skin near the ulcer doesn’t seem to shorten healing time by much or lower the chance of needing an amputation in the future.
High blood pressure. There is some evidence that taking L-arginine can slightly lower blood pressure in healthy people and in people with type 2 diabetes who have mild high blood pressure.
Male infertility.
Prevention of the common cold.
Improving athletic performance.
Breast cancer when used in combination with chemotherapy.
Wound healing.
Female sexual problems.
Sickle cell disease.
Improving the immune system in people with head and neck cancer.

Author: renjiveda

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