N. R. Narayana Murthy

A best Example for SUCCESS !

Occupation Chairman Emeritus of Infosys Technologies
Salary $50,000 USD (Infosys) Net worth $2 billion (2011)
Spouse Sudha Murthy Children 2
Nagavara Ramarao Narayana Murthy better known as N. R. Narayana Murthy, is an Indian industrialist and software engineer. He is the founder and Chairman Emeritus of Infosys Technologies Limited.

Born into a Kannada Madhwa Brahmin family in Mysore, Karnataka on August 20, 1946. Murthy graduated with a degree in electrical engineering from the National Institute of Engineering, University of Mysore in 1967 after attending government school. He received his master’s degree from IIT Kanpur in 1969.

His first position was at IIM Ahmedabad as chief systems programmerwhere he worked on a time-sharing system and designed and implemented a BASIC interpreter for ECIL (Electronics Corporation of India Limited).
After IIM Ahmedabad, he joined Patni Computer Systems in Pune. Before moving to Mumbai, Murthy met his wife Sudha Murthy in Pune who at the time was an engineer working at Tata Engineering and Locomotive Co. Ltd. (Telco, now known as Tata Motors) in Pune.
Murthy founded Infosys in 1981 in Pune with an initial capital of US $250, most of which was borrowed from his wife Sudha Murty. At its inception, he invited six other engineers to join the company. Murthy served as the founder CEO of Infosys for 21 years, and was succeeded by co-founder Nandan Nilekani in March 2002. At Infosys he articulated, designed and implemented the Global Delivery Model which has become the foundation for the huge success in IT services outsourcing from India. He also lead the company through several key decisions including its listing on the Indian stock exchange and on the NASDAQ.
He served as chairman of the National Association of Software and Service Companies from 1992 to 1994.
In August 2004, TIME listed him under “Global Tech Influentials” as one of the ten leaders who are helping shape the future of technology. In November 2006, TIME again voted him as one of the Asians who have brought about revolutionary changes in Asia in the last 60 years.
Murthy retired from his executive position at Infosys on 20 August 2006. However, he continues as the Chairman Emeritus of the Board.
Murthy started a new venture capital fund called Catamaran Venture Fund with the money he got by selling 800,000 Infosys shares worth 174 crores.
Sudha Murthy also gave him 430 crores, which she got by selling quarter of her 1.6% stake in Infosys.
Murthy serves as an independent director on the boards of HSBC, DBS Bank and Unilever. He also serves on the boards of the Ford Foundation, UN Foundation, Indo-British Partnership, and NDTV. He is the chairman of the Governing board of Public Health Foundation of India.

He is a member of the Advisory Boards and Councils of the Stanford Graduate School of Business, the Corporate Governance initiative at the Harvard Business School, the Indian School of Business, Cornell University committee on academic affairs, the committee on alumni affairs and development at Yale University, the William F. Achtmeyer Center for Global Leadership at the Tuck School of Business, and the University of Tokyo’s President’s Council.
He is a member of the Board of Directors of INSEAD, the Board of Overseers of the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, Singapore Management University, Asian Institute of Management (AIM), the Board of Members of School of Management at Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Asia Business Council and Business Advisory Council of Great Lakes Institute of Management and International Institute of Information Technology – Bangalore.
He also serves as a British Telecommunications.
His wife,

Charity Invisible - The Role Model for 'Altruism'
Sudha Murthy (née Kulkarni), is an Indian social worker and accomplished author. She is known for her philanthropic work through the Infosys Foundation. Her sister, Jayashree Despande is wife of enterpreneur and founder of US-based Sycamore Networks, Gururaj Deshpande.
They have two children – Rohan and Akshata. Rohan is married to Venu Srinivasan’s (of TVS motors) daughter Lakshmi Venu. Akshata Murthy is married to Rishi Sunak.
Murthy is the brother-in-law of serial entrepreneur Gururaj “Desh” Deshpande and the uncle of former NASSCOM Chairman and MphasiS chief Jerry Rao.

Awards and honours
Year Name Awarding organization Ref.
2010 IEEE Honorary Membership
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

2010 Foreign Associate Member United States National Academy of Engineering.

2008 Padma Vibhushan
President of India.

2008 Officer of the Legion of Honor
Government of France.

2007 Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE)
Government of United Kingdom.

2007 IEEE Ernst Weber Engineering Leadership Recognition
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

2003 Asia’s Businessmen of the Year Fortune magazine.

2003 Indo-French Forum Medal Indo-French Forum.
2003 World Entrepreneur of the Year Ernst and Young.
2001 Wharton Business School Dean’s Medal University of Pennsylvania.

2001 Max Schmidheiny Liberty Prize Switzerland.
2001 Nikkei Asia Prize Nikkei Inc.
2000 Padma Shri
President of India.

1998 Distinguished Alumnus Award Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur.

1996 JRD Corporate Leadership Award All India Management Association (AIMA).
• 2006: In May 2006, Narayana Murthy has, for the fifth year running, emerged the most admired business leader of India in a study conducted by Brand-comm, a leading Brand Consulting, Advertising and PR firm
• 2005: In December 2005, Narayana Murthy was voted as the 7th most admired CEO/Chairman in the world in a global study conducted by Burson-Marsteller with the Economist Intelligence Unit [1]. The Economist ranked him 8th among the top 15 most admired global leaders (2005). He was ranked 28th among the world’s most-respected business leaders by the Financial Times (2005). He topped the Economic Times Corporate Dossier list of India’s most powerful CEOs for two consecutive years – 2004 and 2005.
• 2001: He was named by TIME / CNN as one of the twenty-five, most influential global executives, a group selected for their lasting influence in creating new industries and reshaping markets.
• 1999: BusinessWeek named him one of the nine entrepreneurs of the year and he was also featured in the BusinessWeek’s ‘The Stars of Asia’ (for three successive years – 1998, 1999 and 2000)
• A Better India, A Better World, Penguin Books, 2009, ISBN 978-0-670-08283-4
• “Our assets walk out of the door each evening. We have to make sure that they come back the next morning.”
• “Performance leads to recognition. Recognition brings respect. Respect enhances power. Humility and grace in one’s moments of power enhances dignity of an organisation,”
• “The real power of money is the power to give it away.”
• “In God we trust, everybody else bring data to the table.”
• “Progress is often equal to the difference between mind and mindset.”
• “I want Infosys to be a place where people of different genders, nationalities, races and religious beliefs work together in an environment of intense competition but utmost harmony, courtesy and dignity to add more and more value to our customers day after day.”
• “A clear conscience is the softest pillow in the world.”
• “A plausible impossibility is better than a convincing possibility.”
• “When in doubt, disclose.”
1. ^ Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/profile/nr-narayana-murthy.
2. ^ India Today 2005 Power List
3. ^ 485 Interview with N.R. Narayana Murthy
4. ^ “Past Chairmen”. NASSCOM website. 2 March 2010. http://www.nasscom.in/Nasscom/templates/NormalPage.aspx?id=5388. Retrieved 1 April 2011.
5. ^ Non-Executive Chairman – MSN Report
6. ^ “Narayana Murthyto chair PHFI”. The Hindu. 12 July 2011. http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/article2219732.ece. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
7. ^ Venkatesha Babu (December 18, 2009). “Gururaj Deshpande – The serial entrepreneur”. Mint (HT Media Ltd). http://www.livemint.com/2009/12/18203315/Gururaj-Deshpande–The-serial.html. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
8. ^ “IEEE Honorary Membership Recipients”. IEEE. http://www.ieee.org/documents/hon_mem_rl.pdf. Retrieved December 20, 2010.
9. ^ “NAE Members Directory – Mr. N. R. Narayana Murthy”. NAE. http://www.nae.edu/MembersSection/Directory20412/31146.aspx. Retrieved January 15, 2011.
10. ^ “Naryanamurthy receive highest civilian honour of France”. The Times of India. http://publication.samachar.com/pub_article.php?id=1169187&navname=General%20&moreurl=http://publication.samachar.com/timesofindia/general/india.php&homeurl=http://www.samachar.com. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
11. ^ “British Honorary Awards”. http://collections.europarchive.org/tna/20080205132101/www.fco.gov.uk/servlet/Front%3Fpagename=OpenMarket/Xcelerate/ShowPage&c=Page&cid=1166536150628.
12. ^ “IEEE Ernst Weber Engineering Leadership Recognition Recipients”. IEEE. http://www.ieee.org/documents/weber_rl.pdf. Retrieved November 20, 2010
• Narayan Murthy’s speech at NYC
• Profile on Infosys.com
• Profile on Karnataka.com
• Interviewed by Gartner Fellow
• Narayana Murthy bids adieu to Infosys
• The Legacy of Infosys Narayana Murthy

Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N._R._Narayana_Murthy”

Mayyil Dileep Vazhunnavar

at Diliyettan’s House, talking about the Topic – ” Velli Oth” righ veda 8th manadal and shri sooktha.
Mr & Mrs Vazhunnavar is having thier dine.
vazhunnavar asked to find out Vivaha Sooktham.
junior Vazhunnavar is indulged in gamings and the innocent parents are worried about it.
Hot discussions over the dine table.
Hari ohm Tath sath !

29 life lessons learned in travelling the world for 8 years straight

      1. As this web-log is basically meant as a platform to share views and Positive ideas, I re publish the content below. I personally have different opinins about some of the views expressed, I find it useful for a different vantage point …

  • Source :http://www.fluentin3months.com/life-lessons/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+fluentin3months+%28Fluent+in+3+months%29

    1. Everyone everywhere basically wants the same thing
    Vastly different as the world’s cultures are, if you speak to Italian millionaires, homeless Brazilians, Dutch fishermen and Filipino computer programmers, in their own languages, you start to see that we are all incredibly alike where it matters.

    Everyone just wants validation, love, security, enjoyment and hopes for a better future. The way they verbalise this and work towards it is where things branch off, but we all have the same basic desires. You can relate to everyone in the world if you look past the superficial things that separate you.

    2. Deferring your happiness to the future is a terrible idea

    Too many people presume that when they have that one thing they can work towards for years then “everything will be alright”.

    This is delusional.

    When you get it, there’ll be something else missing in your life. I fundamentally believe that long-term pure happiness from one particular situation or achievement is a pipe-dream, but we can learn to be content with what we have, live in the now, all while enjoying the progress and changes we are making.

    If your whole life is working up towards one really big major goal that you hold on to for years, then you will have a major anticlimax after the dust settles. Work towards it, but stop deferring your happiness.

    3. “Someday my ship will come in” …….! You will NEVER win the lottery. Be practical.

    People seem to have a strange concept of how luck works and how the universe/some diety/karma/their lucky shoe or how “they deserve it” will mean that things will eventually fall into place for them. You are “due” to win the lottery or will get swept away by prince charming any day now. “You deserve it” (as if others don’t).

    see the world as a very logical place with physical and social rules and understanding this has helped me live well in it.

    The universe owes you nothing, you owe it to yourself to be the master of where your life ends up.

    4. There’s no such thing as destiny. This is excellent news!

    Destiny is used as a cop-out and standard excuse by most people for why they don’t do something with their lives. The thing is, it doesn’t exist.

    Your limitations are not set by who you know, where you were born, what genes you have, how much money you have, how old you are right now, what you did before or other things that you can claim are your stamp of failure for life.

    If you are determined enough there are opportunities in life that are totally achievable with minimal cash, regardless of who you are.

    5. Seek out people with different beliefs and views of the world to yours and get to know their side of the story\\

    6. Living a good life is the best way possible to convince people

    Enough words and enough arguing. Just live by example and soon you’ll have people on your side when they see your results and how passionate you are. No need to “convince” them. Just show them that you are there, tell them how you got there, and they will start to realise that maybe you aren’t that crazy after all.

    7. Nobody has it all figured out

    Almost everyone has problems and puts on a brave face – don’t presume they have it easy. You see of each person what they let you see. You have no idea what they are going through or what they had to put up with to be in a situation that you can consider “easy”.

    This is universal – millionaires, students, the cool kid, the party animal, the introvert and everyone in between has more to their story than the superficial restricted one you see. Never dismiss them as having it easy if you don’t know the entire story.
    8. There’s no shame in saying “I don’t know”

    There is a stigmatism in some cultures to admit ignorance about a particular topic. Don’t dance around the issue – just say I don’t know. Honesty is way smarter.
    9. More money will NEVER solve your problems

    As long as you are not living in the street or going hungry, then you do not “need” more money. When you spend enough time with people who are actually living on next to nothing, but having a full life, then you will truly understand this. Everything that is wonderful about life doesn’t cost a penny, and the rest is way cheaper than you think it is.
    10. Possessions own you

    Look at the real reason you want to buy more expensive crap and realise that it all comes down to validation from others in one way or another. You don’t really need any of it unless it’s directly related to essentials in how you work or survive.

    The need to buy new crap dictates your life – it fixes you in one location with that house and furniture, and it governs how much money you need to earn. And it almost never actually enriches your life in any way. The less you own the better.
    11. TV is the greatest black hole of time available to mankind

    I wasted so much of my life before age 21 spending 3-4 hours a day watching TV. Following shows that I “had” to see, in order to “relax”. I regret almost every second of it. The whole world was passing me by outside.

    TV was an important part of the 20st century, bringing communication and news to the masses, but now it’s wasteful. People get biased news through it, when much better alternatives are available, watch terrible TV shows through it that teach them nothing, and it sucks so many hours of their lives away that they seem to forget about when they delude themselves into thinking that they don’t have time to pursue real passions in life.

    TVs encourage people to be antisocial. The only TVs you should be watching are someone else’s – go to your friend’s house to share a series you like if you must, or go to the bar with your mates to watch sports. Your life will not be enriched by sitting at home watching a screen with zero interactivity to it.
    12. The Internet is the greatest tool ever available to us, but daily use must be capped

    Unlike TVs, the Internet is interactive and allows you to take part and become virtually social. It connects communities all over the world and without it, the last 8 years simply would have been much more difficult for me for many reasons.

    Having said that, it has the same potential as TV to become a black hole of time. Use it to enrich your life, but put a cap on how much you use it so you can get out and live that life. Replacing one screen with another (even when you use it to chat to people) is just escaping the real world, which is much more beautiful.
    13. Get outside and do something with other people

    My favourite website in the world is Couchsurfing.org, precisely because I spend so little time on it. It has simplified my travel life tremendously by allowing me to host people to maintain my languages, and to search it for interesting people to meet up with.

    The world that is worth experiencing is not in books or on TV or computer screens. It’s with other human beings. Stop being shy and get out and meet them!
    14. Speaking only English is incredibly limiting to non-tourist travellers

    If you are visiting a country for a weekend, then you can check into your hotel and order food in an expensive restaurant and get a guided tour in English. You can even make local university educated friends, and successfully create a bubble to protect you from the local language for as long as you like, and delude yourself into thinking that this is the way things are.

    But you will never truly experience the local culture if you limit yourself to being able to interact on a deep level just the well educated part of it. English-speaking travellers miss out on so much – not speaking English has defined most of my travels and the amazing experiences I have had would have been impossible if I didn’t try to learn the local languages.

    ANYONE can learn a language. When I was 21 I thought I couldn’t do it, but one day I put all the bullshit excuses to one side and just spoke it. Speaking a language from day one is the ‘secret’ to being able to learn it quicker and at any age.
    15. Modern foreign culture does not have to satisfy your stereotypes

    Every country in the world is modernising but this does not mean that they are westernising or Americanising. What makes them unique does not have to satisfy your “quaint” tourist-brochure view of them. Leave ignorant stereotypes aside and have an open mind about how modern life is like in that culture.

    Not all Irish people drink, not all Brazilians samba and play football, and Germans, Dutch, Filipinos and everyone else will surprise you if you leave your presumptions about them at the airport.

    Respect the differences, try to adapt to them yourself and realise that to them you might seem backwards in many ways.
    16. Take your time

    If there’s one thing I’ve learned from living in countries that are more “easy going” it’s that they are way wiser than the rest of us in their pace of life. People and countries that do everything quicker also do it worse. Take it easy and go slowly.

    Enjoy every bite of food, walk at a slow pace and take in your surroundings, let the other person finish their side of the conversation while you listen attentively, and stop in the middle of your day, close your eyes or look at nature and become aware of your breathing.
    17. You can’t please everyone

    “I don’t know the secret to success, but the secret to failure is trying to please everyone” – Bill Cosby.

    State your opinion and stick to your guns. If you are confident enough and share your idea with enough people, you will piss off someone no matter what you talk about. That’s their problem, not yours.
    18. Trying to be cool or following trends is for mindless sheep

    Peer pressure is for people who are afraid of their individuality. Stand up for yourself, and go against the flow if that’s what you feel is best. What’s cool now will be frozen over in a few years.
    19. Make mistakes – and LOTS of them!

    Mistakes are how we learn. Failures are the stepping stones to success.
    20. Wear sunscreen

    21. Stop thinking so much and act

    People think their way out of doing everything that’s worth doing in life. The reason I feel I’m getting so much done in the last years is precisely because of how much time I give to over-analysing whether I should do something important or not: None.
    22. Dance and sing whenever possible

    Dancing and singing are great releases and forms of expression. It’s hard not to feel good after a session of either!
    23. Making new friends is easy and so is appreciating your current ones

    My entire eight years travel has been alone. I arrive in a new nation without a single friend waiting for me in many cases. I have no connections, but I make them anyway. I find a party online and go straight to it and say hi to everyone. Soon, if I try enthusiastically enough, I’ll find people I can socialise with on a regular basis.

    If you are friendly, genuine and charming, making friends with people from every culture and background is possible.

    When people who are surrounded by family, networks, work and school colleagues, other friends, clubs and communities they are a part of… tell me that it’s hard to meet new people I feel like slapping them in the face to wake them up to the opportunities around them, which I haven’t had consistently for almost a decade. Look around you!
    24. You don’t know what you’ve got ’till its gone

    Don’t take anything for granted. I couldn’t afford to pay for accommodation one night and had to sleep outside on a rock because of it. Ever since then I appreciate having a bed, couch or hammock, no matter how small or where it may be, because I know what it’s like to not have one. One night was enough to burn it into me – I sigh a breath of relief every time I go to bed now.

    I went partially deaf due to an ear infection for two weeks and appreciate my hearing and all the beautiful sounds around me all the more because I got it back. I also gained an appreciation for signed communication that I’d take advantage of several years later.

    I’ve never lost anyone close to me, but I hug my family members and tell them I love them every chance I get, and clear any bad air with friends and don’t hold back on sharing my emotions with them. Life is too short – if I lost anything important to me then I want to make sure that I never wasted the time I did have with it or with him or her.
    25. Swallow your pride and apologise

    Never hold a grudge and never try to win every argument. Sometimes it’s best to let your pride slide for the sake of clearing the air with someone. Be the first to say you’re sorry. Never wait for the other person to make the first move.
    26. Doing anything specifically to impress people is stupid

    People will never give you the validation you seek if you try to be a dancing monkey for them. Saying how many languages you speak, how rich you are, who you know, where you studied or what you do for a living, or trying to show-off in any other way to get someone to like you, or working for these things just for the bragging rights will leave you really disappointed.

    People are impressed by those who aren’t trying to impress them and are comfortable in themselves and social and interesting. Sometimes to be “interesting” all you have to do is be a good listener.
    27. People are not alone in being alone

    One of the most frequent questions I get asked as a long-term solo traveller is if I feel lonely. The short answer is no. The long answer would require an entire post in itself.

    But the fact of the matter is that loneliness is much more common around the world than I previously thought it was. I was actually much more lonely in my university (fixed) life than I am now. And I meet many people who have vast networks of social groups who feel desperately lonely because they feel nobody gets them.

    Then others who simply changed their lifestyle in some way (not necessarily by travel, but perhaps marriage or starting a demanding job) and have lost contact with all their childhood friends because of it, also feel lonely.

    I’ve talked to many people who are convinced they are the only ones who feel this way. Each time I hear a similar story I can hear the Police in my head “seems I’m not alone in being alone…” Believe it or not I find this very comforting when I am genuinely separated by thousands of kilometres from anyone who even knows what my name is. Even though nobody is in exactly the same situation, the amount of people in the world I’ve met tells me that I’m very likely not the only one in such a situation, even at that very second.

    No matter how lonely you might feel, there is always someone who can relate to you. Perhaps you can’t talk to them right now, but they are out there.
    28. Love isn’t “all” you need, but if you don’t have it in some form, your life will be very empty

    We don’t need love to survive, but without it there will be a huge hole inside you. Make sure that every day you have someone (family, friends, lover) to remind you that you are special. If you postpone this part of your life until later, after you get or do that thing you want to do, you will continue in that lonely path indefinitely.
    29. The most important lessons in life can never be expressed in black and white, but must be experienced

    I thought I knew it all back in university – and that everything of importance can be found in books. But the truth is that the most important things in life are very hard to put in black and white, including what I’ve said in this post.

    When most of the world’s information is at our fingertips, a mouseclick away, it makes it feel like we don’t need to experience any more. Movies, books, or “living vicariously through someone else” means we can apparently get the general gist of anything.

    This is false. Experience is the greatest teacher of all. Stop reading about or watching the world passively and start living it.

    What is a Feed?

    What is a Feed?

    A Feed is a mechanism for publishing your site content so that new posts can automatically be picked up by software programs. Many people use “feed reader” software to collect the latest posts from multiple sites that they enjoy reading so that they can read them all in one place and never miss an update, without needing to check each site every day or every hour. There are feed readers that can be installed on your local computer (many email programs include feed reading features), as well on online services like Google Reader. Like feed readers, Technorati’s software uses your feed to read your blog.

    The stndard icon for feeds looks like this: RSS Feed Icon

    Most blogging services & platforms create feeds for you automatically. You may even have a feed and not know it, but your browser can tell you. Go to your site’s main page as a user would see it (not as the administrator) and check the following:

    * if using Internet Explorer, look for the orange RSS icon in your toolbar, below the URL bar. Click on it to see the list off feeds available from your page
    * If using Firefox, Safari, or another browser, the RSS icon will likely appear in the URL bar; it may be a different color. You can click on it for a list of available feeds.

    Select one of the feeds to open it in your browser. You can then copy the URL to use when claiming your blog. (Note: many services offer a comments feed; we don’t want that one.)

    There are two main types of feeds: Atom and RSS. We prefer Atom, but can use either one. Wikipedia, among other places, has a more in-depth explanation of feeds.

    Most blog hosting services make feeds auto-discoverable and even offer you a way to specify the feed URL(s). If you are managing your own site setup, you can enable auto-discovery of your feed(s) for your site by adding a line like this to the section of your HTML code:

    It’s also a good idea to have your feed refer back to your main page. Your feed should tell what page it belongs to — the main where someone can go in a browser to see the content listed in the feed. Each feed item has a permalink to a page for that specific item, but the feed itself should also link to your main page. That way we know it’s your feed, and not somebody else’s.

    This can be done in various ways, depending on your feed format. In RSS, there is a element inside the element but not inside any elements, like:

    {enter the URL for your main page here}

    For ATOM feeds, use a link similar to the auto-discovery link on the main page. This goes at the top level of the ATOM page:

    Read more: http://technorati.com/feeds-faq#ixzz1SacKqY8Z

    The Science of Pranayama

    The Science of Pranayama

    Tasmin sati svasaprasvasayor-gativicchedah pranayamah—“Regulation of breath or the control of Prana is the stoppage of inhalation and exhalation, which follows after securing that steadiness of posture or seat.”

    This is the definition of Pranayama in the Yoga-sutras of Patanjali.

    ‘Svasa’ means inspiratory breath. ‘Prasvasa’ means expiratory breath. You can take up the practice of Pranayama after you have gained steadiness in your Asana (seat). If you can sit for 3 hour in one Asana, continuously at one stretch, you have gained mastery over the Asana. If you are able to sit from half to one hour even, you can take up the practice of Pranayama. You can hardly make any spiritual progress without the practice of Pranayama.

    Prana is Vyashti, when the individual is concerned. The sum total of the cosmic energy or cosmic Prana is Hiranyagarbha who is known as the floating ‘Golden-Egg’. Hiranyagarbha is Samashti Prana. One match stick is Vyashti (single). The whole match box is Samashti. A single mango-tree is Vyashti. The whole mango grove is Samashti. The energy in the body is Prana. By controlling the motion of the lungs or respiratory organs, we can control the Prana that is vibrating inside. By control of Prana, the mind can be easily controlled, because the mind is fastened to the Prana, like the bird to the string. Just as the bird that is tied to a post by a string, after flying here and there, finds its resting place in the post, so also this mind-bird after running hither and thither, in various sensual objects, finds its resting place during deep sleep in the Prana.

    Akilandeshwari – Arabhi

    Akilandeshwari – Arabhi

    The same Chakras that are referred to in Kam.Nav are referred here too, and in the same order.

    The “Shrividya” upasana (with its Nava-avaranas,Chakras and various Yoginis) must be referred here.

    The jujavanti kriti too, has only general and metaphysical attributes and no references to the Kshetra(Thiruvanaikka – referred to as Samajatavi in Jampupate) or to Jambulingeshwara.
    May be the Shrichakras that were installed by Shri Adi Shankara as the ear-ornaments (Tatankas) of Akhilandeshwari, did the trick, transporting MD to another plane!
    Another interesting info about Thiruvanaikka (which is now part of Trichy) is that Madurai and Thiruvanaikka are considered the sites of Mantrini and Dandini , who are the Minister and Commander of Shri Lalita Tripurasundari ( actually diff. forms of Herself)

    Philosophy of information 1

    Philosophy of information

    The philosophy of information (PI) is the area of research that studies conceptual issues arising at the intersection of computer science, information technology, and philosophy.
    It includes:
    1. the critical investigation of the conceptual nature and basic principles of information, including its dynamics, utilisation and sciences
    2. the elaboration and application of information-theoretic and computational methodologies to philosophical problems.
    1 History
    1.1 Logic of information
    1.2 Cybernetics
    1.3 Study of language and information
    1.4 P.I.
    2 Defininitions of “information”
    2.1 Peirce
    2.2 Shannon and Weaver
    2.3 Bateson
    2.4 Floridi
    3 Philosophical directions
    3.1 Information and society


    Semiotics, also called semiotic studies or (in the Saussurean tradition) semiology, is the study of signs and sign processes (semiosis), indication, designation, likeness, analogy, metaphor, symbolism, signification, and communication. Semiotics is closely related to the field of linguistics, which, for its part, studies the structure and meaning of language more specifically. Semiotics is often divided into three branches:
    Semantics: Relation between signs and the things to which they refer; their denotata, or meaning
    Syntactics: Relations among signs in formal structures
    Pragmatics: Relation between signs and the effects they have on the people who use them
    Semiotics is frequently seen as having important anthropological dimensions; for example, Umberto Eco proposes that every cultural phenomenon can be studied as communication.[citation needed] However, some semioticians focus on the logical dimensions of the science. They examine areas belonging also to the natural sciences – such as how organisms make predictions about, and adapt to, their semiotic niche in the world (see semiosis). In general, semiotic theories take signs or sign systems as their object of study: the communication of information in living organisms is covered in biosemiotics or zoosemiosis.
    Syntactics is the branch of semiotics that deals with the formal properties of signs and symbols.[1] More precisely, syntactics deals with the “rules that govern how words are combined to form phrases and sentences.”[2] Charles Morris adds that semantics deals with the relation of signs to their designata and the objects which they may or do denote; and, pragmatics deals with the biotic aspects of semiosis, that is, with all the psychological, biological, and sociological phenomena which occur in the functioning of signs.


    Cybernetics is the interdisciplinary study of the structure of regulatory systems. Cybernetics is closely related to control theory and systems theory, at least in its first-order form. (Second-order cybernetics has crucial methodological and epistemological implications that are fundamental to the field as a whole.) Both in its origins and in its evolution in the second half of the 20th century, cybernetics is equally applicable to physical and social (that is, language-based) systems.

    A code is a rule for converting a piece of information (for example, a letter, word, phrase, or gesture) into another form or representation (one sign into another sign), not necessarily of the same type.
    In communications and information processing, encoding is the process by which information from a source is converted into symbols to be communicated. Decoding is the reverse process, converting these code symbols back into information understandable by a receiver.
    One reason for coding is to enable communication in places where ordinary spoken or written language is difficult or impossible. For example, semaphore, where the configuration of flags held signaller or the arms of a semaphore tower encodes parts of the message, typically individual letters and numbers. Another person standing a great distance away can interpret the flags and reproduce the words sent.
    Floating signifier
    Floating signifiers or empty signifiers is a term used in semiotics to denote signifiers without referents, such as a word that doesn’t point to any actual object or agreed upon meaning.


    In religious studies and social philosophy, hermeneutics (English pronunciation: /hɜrməˈn(j)uːtɨks/) is the study of the theory and practice of interpretation. Traditional hermeneutics—which includes Biblical hermeneutics—refers to the study of the interpretation of written texts, especially texts in the areas of literature, religion and law. Contemporary, or modern, hermeneutics encompasses not only issues involving the written text, but everything in the interpretative process. This includes verbal and nonverbal forms of communication as well as prior aspects that affect communication, such as presuppositions, preunderstandings, the meaning and philosophy of language, and semiotics.[1] Philosophical hermeneutics refers primarily to Hans-Georg Gadamer’s theory of knowledge as developed in Truth and Method, and sometimes to Paul Ricoeur.[2] Hermeneutic consistency refers to analysis of texts for coherent explanation. A hermeneutic (singular) refers to one particular method or strand of interpretation. See also double hermeneutic.
    The terms exegesis and hermeneutics are sometimes used interchangeably because exegesis focuses primarily on the written text. Hermeneutics however is a more widely defined discipline of interpretation theory including the entire framework of the interpretive process and, encompassing all forms of communication and expression; written, verbal, artistic, geo-political, physiological, sociological etc.
    Information theory
    Information theory is a branch of applied mathematics and electrical engineering involving the quantification of information. Information theory was developed by Claude E. Shannon to find fundamental limits on signal processing operations such as compressing data and on reliably storing and communicating data. Since its inception it has broadened to find applications in many other areas, including statistical inference, natural language processing, cryptography generally, networks other than communication networks — as in neurobiology,[1] the evolution[2] and function[3] of molecular codes, model selection[4] in ecology, thermal physics,[5] quantum computing, plagiarism detection[6] and other forms of data analysis.[7]
    A key measure of information is known as entropy, which is usually expressed by the average number of bits needed for storage or communication. Entropy quantifies the uncertainty involved in predicting the value of a random variable. For example, specifying the outcome of a fair coin flip (two equally likely outcomes) provides less information (lower entropy) than specifying the outcome from a roll of a die (six equally likely outcomes).
    Applications of fundamental topics of information theory include lossless data compression (e.g. ZIP files), lossy data compression (e.g. MP3s and JPGs), and channel coding (e.g. for DSL lines). The field is at the intersection of mathematics, statistics, computer science, physics, neurobiology, and electrical engineering. Its impact has been crucial to the success of the Voyager missions to deep space, the invention of the compact disc, the feasibility of mobile phones, the development of the Internet, the study of linguistics and of human perception, the understanding of black holes, and numerous other fields[citation needed]. Important sub-fields of information theory are source coding, channel coding, algorithmic complexity theory, algorithmic information theory, information-theoretic security, and measures of information.
    International Association for Semiotic Studies
    International Association for Semiotic Studies (Association Internationale de Sémiotique, IASS-AIS) is the major world organisation of semioticians, established in 1969.
    The founding members of the Association include Algirdas Julien Greimas, Roman Jakobson, Julia Kristeva, Emile Benveniste, André Martinet, Roland Barthes, Umberto Eco, Thomas A. Sebeok, and Juri Lotman.
    The official journal of the Association is Semiotica, published by Mouton de Gruyter. The working languages of the association are English and French.
    The Executive Committee of the IASS (le Comité Directeur de l’AIS) consists of the representatives from semiotic societies of member countries (two from each).


    Logic of information

    The logic of information, or the logical theory of information, considers the information content of logical signs and expressions along the lines initially developed by Charles Sanders Peirce. In this line of work, the concept of information serves to integrate the aspects of signs and expressions that are separately covered, on the one hand, by the concepts of denotation and extension, and on the other hand, by the concepts of connotation and comprehension.
    Peirce began to develop these ideas in his lectures “On the Logic of Science” at Harvard University (1865) and the Lowell Institute (1866).
    Pragmatic theory of truth
    Pragmatic theory of truth refers to those accounts, definitions, and theories of the concept truth that distinguish the philosophies of pragmatism and pragmaticism. The conception of truth in question varies along lines that reflect the influence of several thinkers, initially and notably, Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, and John Dewey, but a number of common features can be identified. The most characteristic features are (1) a reliance on the pragmatic maxim as a means of clarifying the meanings of difficult concepts, truth in particular, and (2) an emphasis on the fact that the product variously branded as belief, certainty, knowledge, or truth is the result of a process, namely, inquiry.

    Pragmatic maxim

    The pragmatic maxim, also known as the maxim of pragmatism or the maxim of pragmaticism, is a maxim of logic formulated by Charles Sanders Peirce. Serving as a normative recommendation or a regulative principle in the normative science of logic, its function is to guide the conduct of thought toward the achievement of its purpose, advising on an optimal way of “attaining clearness of apprehension”. Here is its original 1878 statement in English[1] when it was not yet named:
    It appears, then, that the rule for attaining the third grade of clearness of apprehension is as follows: Consider what effects, that might conceivably have practical bearings, we conceive the object of our conception to have. Then, our conception of these effects is the whole of our conception of the object.
    (Peirce on p. 293 of “How to Make Our Ideas Clear”, Popular Science Monthly, v. 12, pp. 286–302. Reprinted widely, including Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce (CP) v. 5, paragraphs 388–410.)
    Charles Sanders Peirce bibliography
    This Charles Sanders Peirce bibliography consolidates numerous references to Charles Sanders Peirce’s writings, including letters, manuscripts, publications, and Nachlass. For an extensive chronological list of Peirce’s works (titled in English), see the Chronologische Übersicht (Chronological Overview) on the Schriften (Writings) page for Charles Sanders Pierce.

    Mudras Introduction

    Mudras – Semiotics

    the source within

    please refer :http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semiotics
    Yoga is about self-control and awareness of yourself, your body and your surroundings. Hatha yoga consists of postures, breathing, energy locks and energy seals. A mudra is an energy seal. It is a gesture or posture that allows us to control the flow of our energy or life force (prana). There are 25 mudras in Hatha Yoga. Mudras are not restricted to hand gestures, but can be done with the eyes, body postures or take the form of cleansing rituals. The gestures themselves are symbolic of various states of consciousness. However, certain gestures can lead to the state of consciousness that they represent. So, practising a mudra can alter your state of consciousness.

    Mudras are not confined to yoga. Some of them are international signs. Consider the ubiquitous handshake. What does it say? ‘Hello, pleased to meet you’. It is a physical touch with someone else, and in the old days it said ‘Look, I carry no weapon’. In ancient times the gods were called by raising both arms to the sky. As Christianity became powerful this gesture was prohibited and was then partially integrated into the Christian teachings during Mass. Hand gestures are prevalent in our lives today. When a friend goes for an interview we ‘hold thumbs’ for them. We clap at the theatre to show our appreciation. One of the first gestures and words that a small child learns to use together is to wave and say ‘bye bye’. We hold hands with our loved ones and some of us stick our middle finger into the air when another driver cuts us off. These gestures are understood by all and they carry certain energies.

    Most of us enjoy watching Indian dancing but we have no idea that an intricate story is being woven by the dancer. All those hand an eye gestures are mudras and are recognised and interpreted by those that know what they mean.
    Our hands, like our feet, are made up of reflex zones and are very sensitive. Our hands and feet contain more nerves and endocrine glands than any other part of our bodies. When we practice a hand mudra and connect the fingertips, palms and hands in certain ways we activate, redirect and recharge the energy of our entire being and the body’s energy is magnified. Everybody knows about chakras these days. They are very fashionable! They are energy centres in the body – much like the electricity substations found scattered around any city. However, every body also has 72 000 nadis. These are electric or pranic currents that run from the crown of the head to the toes of the feet and the tips of the fingers. One could compare the nadis to the power lines that supply our houses with electricity. (The major crossings of the nadis form the chakras). Mudras have an intense effect on the nadis. Each finger represents an element, a chakra, a planet, a body organ and an emotion. Each finger is also the ending of a meridian. Mudras can be enhanced with breathing exercises, mediation, mantras, colour, affirmations and music. The thumb is associated with the fire element, the lung meridian and the planet Mars and represents willpower and logic. The index finger is associated with the air element, the stomach meridian and the planet Jupiter. It represents the mind and the power of thought. The middle finger (not to be held up in the traffic) is associated with the ether element, the circulation and gallbladder meridians and the planet Saturn. It represents our spiritual path. Hindus call it the ‘heavenly finger’. The ring finger is associated with the earth element, the liver meridian and the sun (or Apollo, the sun god). It represents vitality and health. The little finger is associated with the water element, the heart meridian and the planet Mercury. It represents communication, sexuality and personal relationships. Our hands are important.

    Chin Mudra

    Chin Mudra

    This gesture symbolises the connected nature of human consciousness. The circle formed by the index finger and thumb represents the true goal of yoga – the merging of the individual soul with the universal soul, or the soul of God. The nail of the index finger is placed into the first joint of the thumb. The last three fingers always face down towards the earth in this mudra. It is a gesture of receiving. When the finger touches the thumb a circuit is produced which allows the energy that would normally dissipate into the environment to travel back into the body, and up to the brain. When the fingers and hands are placed on the knees the knees are sensitised creating another pranic circuit that maintains and redirects prana within the body. In addition placing the hands on the knees stimulates a nadi, which runs from the knees up the inside of the thighs and into the perinium. Sensitising this channel helps stimulate the energies at the muladhara chakra. When the palms face upwards in the chin mudra the chest and heart area are opened up.

    Hridaya Mudra

    This mudra diverts the flow of energy from the hands to the heart area. The middle and ring fingers relate directly to nadis connected to the heart, while the thumb closes the pranic circuit and acts as an energiser, diverting the flow of prana from the hands to these nadis. Hridaya mudra helps to release pent up emotion and unburden the heart.


    Yoni Mudra

    The interlocking of the fingers in this practice creates a complete cross-connection of energies from the right hand to the left and vice versa. As well as balancing the energies in the body, it helps balance the activities of the left and right hemispheres of the brain.This mudra makes the body and mind more stable in meditation and developes greater concentration, awareness and internal physical relaxation. It redirects energy back into the body which would otherwise be dispersed. The word yoni means womb or source. The yoni mudra invokes the primal energy inherent in the womb or source of creation.