Computer Vision Syndrome

Computer Vision Syndrome
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ജോലിയുടെയും പഠനത്തിന്‍െറയും വിനോദത്തിന്‍െറയും ഭാഗമായി മണിക്കൂറുകളാണ് നാമോരോരുത്തരും കമ്പ്യൂട്ടറിനു മുന്നില്‍ ചെലവഴിക്കുന്നത്.

കമ്പ്യൂട്ടര്‍ സ്ക്രീന്‍ ഉപയോഗിക്കുമ്പോള്‍ ചില കാര്യങ്ങള്‍ ശ്രദ്ധിച്ചില്ലെങ്കില്‍ അത് നമ്മുടെ കണ്ണുകളുടെ ആരോഗ്യത്തെ ഗുരുതരമായി ബാധിച്ചേക്കും.

ദീര്‍ഘനേരം കമ്പ്യൂട്ടര്‍ ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്നവരില്‍ കണ്ണിലും കാഴ്ചയിലും ഉണ്ടാകുന്ന അസ്വസ്ഥതകളെ ‘കമ്പ്യൂട്ടര്‍ വിഷന്‍ സിന്‍ഡ്രോം’ എന്നാണ് പറയുന്നത്.

കണ്ണുവേദന, തലവേദന, കാഴ്ച മങ്ങല്‍, കണ്ണെരിച്ചില്‍, കടച്ചില്‍, തടച്ചില്‍ എന്നിങ്ങനെയുണ്ടാവുന്ന പല ബുദ്ധിമുട്ടുകളും കമ്പ്യൂട്ടര്‍ വിഷന്‍ സിന്‍ഡ്രോത്തിന്‍െറ ലക്ഷണങ്ങളാണ്.

കണ്ണിന്‍െറ പേശികള്‍ക്കുണ്ടാവുന്ന ക്ഷീണവും കണ്ണിന്‍െറ നനവ് കുറയുന്നതുമാണ് ഇതിന്‍െറ മുഖ്യകാരണങ്ങള്‍.

ചിലകാര്യങ്ങള്‍ ശ്രദ്ധിച്ചാല്‍ കമ്പ്യൂട്ടര്‍ വിഷന്‍ സിന്‍ഡ്രോം നമുക്ക് പ്രതിരോധിക്കാനാവും.

കമ്പ്യൂട്ടര്‍ ഉപയോഗിക്കുമ്പോള്‍ കാഴ്ചക്കുറവ് അനുഭവപ്പെടുന്നവര്‍ നേത്രരോഗവിദഗ്ധന്‍െറ നിര്‍ദേശപ്രകാരം ആവശ്യമെങ്കില്‍ കണ്ണട ധരിക്കേണ്ടതാണ്.

കംപ്യൂട്ടര്‍ ആധുനികജീവിതത്തിലെ ഒരു അവിഭാജ്യ ഘടകമായിക്കഴിഞ്ഞു. കൊച്ചുകുട്ടികള്‍തൊട്ട് മുതിര്‍ന്നവര്‍വരെ എല്ലാവരും ഇന്ന് ഡിജിറ്റല്‍ സാങ്കേതികവിദ്യ ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്നുണ്ട്.

തുടര്‍ച്ചയായി രണ്ടോ അതിലധികമോ മണിക്കൂര്‍ കംപ്യൂട്ടര്‍, സ്മാര്‍ട്ട്ഫോണ്‍, ടാബ് തുടങ്ങിയ ഡിജിറ്റല്‍ സ്ക്രീന്‍ ഉപയോഗിച്ചാല്‍ മിക്കവാറും എല്ലാവര്‍ക്കും കണ്ണിനും കാഴ്ചയ്ക്കും പ്രശ്നങ്ങള്‍ അനുഭവപ്പെടാം.

ഇതിനെയാണ് കംപ്യൂട്ടര്‍ വിഷന്‍ സിന്‍ഡ്രോം (ഇഢട) അഥവാ ഡിജിറ്റല്‍ ഐ സ്ട്രെയിന്‍ എന്നുപറയുന്നത്.

മനുഷ്യനേത്രങ്ങള്‍ പ്രധാനമായും ദൂരക്കാഴ്ചയ്ക്കായിരുന്നു ഉപയോഗിച്ചിരുന്നത്. എന്നാല്‍, നൂതന സാങ്കേതികവിദ്യകള്‍ വന്നതോടെ പേപ്പറില്‍നിന്നും കംപ്യൂട്ടറിലേക്കുള്ള മാറ്റം വളരെ പെട്ടെന്നായി. ഇത് കണ്ണുകളുടെ ആരോഗ്യത്തെയും ബാധിക്കാം.

എന്തൊക്കെയാണ് ലക്ഷണങ്ങള്‍..? ❓

സാധാരണയായി ഉണ്ടാകുന്ന ലക്ഷണങ്ങള്‍

(1) കണ്ണുകഴയ്ക്കുക
(2) തലവേദന
(3) കാഴ്ചമങ്ങല്‍
(4) കണ്ണുചുവപ്പ്
(5) കണ്ണ് വരണ്ടതായി അനുഭവപ്പെടുക
(6) കോണ്‍ടാക്റ്റ് ലെന്‍സ് ഉപയോഗിക്കുമ്പോള്‍ ബുദ്ധിമുട്ട്
ഇതിനുപുറമേ തോളും കഴുത്തും വേദനയും കംപ്യൂട്ടര്‍ വിഷന്‍ സിന്‍ഡ്രോമിന്റെ ലക്ഷണമാകാം.

എന്തെല്ലാം ഘടകങ്ങള്‍ സിവിഎസിനു കാരണമാകാം..? ❓

1. നേരത്തെയുള്ള കാഴ്ചക്കുറവ്
2. കൃത്യമല്ലാത്ത ഗ്ളാസ്പവര്‍
3. കംപ്യൂട്ടര്‍ ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്ന മുറിയിലെ
പ്രകാശം
4. സ്ക്രീനില്‍നിന്നുള്ള ദൂരം
5. സ്ക്രീനില്‍നിന്ന് പ്രതിഫലിക്കുന്ന ഗ്ളേര്‍
6. കംപ്യൂട്ടര്‍ ഉപയോഗിക്കുമ്പോള്‍ ഇരിക്കുന്ന രീതി (Viewing Posture)

ഒരു വ്യക്തിക്ക് കംപ്യൂട്ടര്‍ ഉപയോഗിക്കുമ്പോള്‍ ഉണ്ടാകുന്ന കാഴ്ചയുടെ ബുദ്ധിമുട്ടുകള്‍ അയാളുടെ കാഴ്ചയുടെ പരിമിതിയെയും എത്രസമയം തുടര്‍ച്ചയായി സ്ക്രീന്‍ ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്നു എന്നതിനെയും അനുസരിച്ചായിരിക്കും. നേരത്തെ കാഴ്ചവൈകല്യമുള്ള വ്യക്തി, അതായത് ഷോര്‍ട്ട്സൈറ്റ്, ലോങ്സൈറ്റ് അല്ലെങ്കില്‍ അസ്റ്റിഗ്മാറ്റിസം , 40 വയസ്സിനുമേല്‍ ഉണ്ടാകുന്ന വെള്ളെഴുത്ത് ഇവയെല്ലാം കംപ്യൂട്ടര്‍ ഉപയോഗം ബുദ്ധിമുട്ടുള്ളതാക്കാം.

കംപ്യൂട്ടര്‍ സ്ക്രീനിലേക്ക് നോക്കുന്നതും അച്ചടിച്ച പേപ്പറിലെ അക്ഷരങ്ങളിലേക്കു നോക്കുന്നതും വ്യത്യസ്തമാണ്. സ്ക്രീനിലെ അക്ഷരങ്ങള്‍ അഥവാ പിക്സലുകള്‍ കൃത്യതയോ സൂക്ഷ്മതയോ ഇല്ലാത്തതാണ്. ഇതിന് കോണ്‍ട്രാസ്റ്റ് കുറവാണ്. കൂടാതെ സ്ക്രീനില്‍നിന്നുള്ള ഗ്ളേറും കാഴ്ച ആയാസകരമാക്കും.

സാധാരണ പേപ്പര്‍ വായിക്കുന്ന ദൂരം 18–20 സെ.മീ. ആണ്. എന്നാല്‍, കംപ്യൂട്ടര്‍സ്ക്രീന്‍ ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്ന ദൂരം 20–28 ഇഞ്ചാണ്. അതിനാല്‍ സ്ഥിരമായി കണ്ണട അല്ലെങ്കില്‍ കോണ്‍ടാക്ട് ലെന്‍സ് ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്നവര്‍ക്കുപോലും കംപ്യൂട്ടര്‍സ്ക്രീന്‍ ബുദ്ധിമുട്ടുണ്ടാക്കാം. ചിലര്‍ക്ക് വ്യക്തമായി കാണാന്‍ സ്ക്രീനിലേക്ക് കുനിഞ്ഞുനോക്കേണ്ടിവരാം. അല്ലെങ്കില്‍ തല ചരിച്ച് നോക്കേണ്ടിവരാം. ഇത് കഴുത്തിലേയും തോളിന്റെയും പേശികള്‍ക്ക് ക്ഷീണമുണ്ടാക്കും.

മിക്കവാറും കാഴ്ചയുടെ പരിമിതിക്കും ഉപരിയായി കണ്ണ് പ്രവര്‍ത്തിക്കേണ്ടിവരുമ്പോഴാണ് സിവിഎസ് ഉണ്ടാകുന്നത്.

തുടര്‍ച്ചയായി രണ്ടിലധികം മണിക്കൂര്‍ കംപ്യൂട്ടര്‍സ്ക്രീന്‍ ഉപയോഗം ഇതിനു കാരണമാകാം.

Programming in Linux – towards a world of Freedom

Resources :
http://www.linuxforu.com/2010/05/write-your-next-program-on-linux/
By Amit Saha on May 1, 2010 in Concepts, For You & Me.
KidSept2x1024
[The Article is completely authored by the sited author, I am greatly indebted to him. The article is so informative, that I felt , I should reblog it. – If the author come across the article, and founds the republishing inappropriate, Please Inform to renjiveda@gmail.com]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux_kernel

http://www.kernel.org/

http://www.ubuntu.com/

http://www.fedoraproject.org/

http://www.linuxnewbieguide.org/
http://www.linuxnewbieguide.org/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU_Compiler_Collection
http://java.sun.com/javase/downloads/widget/jdk6.jsp

http://openjdk.java.net/

http://openjdk.java.net/install/
http://chiark.greenend.org.uk/%7Esgtatham/putty/download.html

http://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Downloads

http://wubi.sourceforge.net/
http://projects.gnome.org/anjuta/features.html
http://zaher14.blogspot.com/2007/01/graphicsh-in-linux.html

http://gcc.gnu.org/
by Brian W. Kernighan and Dennis M. Ritchie, The C Programming Language
Bjarne Stroustrup, The C++ Programming Language
Neil Matthew, Richard Stones, Beginning Linux Programming

http://stackoverflow.com/
is a community forum where you can post your programming-related questions. It’s languageneutral, which makes it very attractive.

http://polydistortion.net/doc/ssh.html
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Related Posts:
Programming Tools for Linux
phpVirtualBox — Accessing VirtualBox from a Browser
Developing Apps on Qt, Part 1
Kernel Development & Debugging Using the Eclipse IDE
Developing Apps on Qt, Part 2
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codingQuite a few colleges and schools still teach C/C++/Java programming on Windows — and even worse, on DOS (using Turbo C/C++)! GNU/Linux provides a first class operating system, replete with support for dozens of different programming languages, besides outstanding support for C, C++ and Java. And not only is it free of cost, but it comes with the freedom to modify, share, and extend the IDEs and toolchains! So why on earth do people continue to use outdated and painfully inefficient operating systems or developer tools? This article dispels the myth that Linux is “difficult”, and shows how simple it is to get started with programming on Linux!

Through this article, I want to ask people to start programming on the GNU/Linux operating system (from here on, referred to as just ‘Linux’). Students who are just getting started in programming; educators who teach or have a role in teaching programming to new students; hobbyists who program on Windows — I’m asking all of you to please read on and give Linux a real good try for at least a week. If you agree that programming on Linux is indeed a better experience than your previous platform, then stay with it, and enjoy the freedom that the rest of us do!
Just to clear any misunderstandings, I am not aiming to get you to write code for the Linux kernel itself (though that could well follow as your comfort and programming proficiency grow). Instead, I’m talking about writing user-space programs — including the exercises, homework, and project work that most computer-science study courses include. Before we start, here’s a disclaimer: this article contains strong personal opinions and beliefs; I do not in any way intend to be offensive, but some of these ideas just might be worth a try — by you — to see if you feel the same way!
Attacking the mindsetUbntu Free GNU Linux Wallpapers Beginning Linux Programming
It’s commonly believed that Linux is ‘tough to use’. Sure, it’s different from what people who’re used to Windows are accustomed to — but it’s not tough. Once you adjust to the differences, you’ll probably laugh at this misconception yourself, and tell others how wrong their perception is!
Just consider the many computer science students who’ve been inspired by the buzz that Linux has been creating over a long time now. They have resolutely set about learning how to use it on their own initiative — asking questions on mailing lists, forums and over IRC channels. Within a couple of weeks, they are ready to do more than just get around. Often, within a month, they’re so much at home with Linux that they begin introducing others to the OS. Astounding? It may seem so — but it’s just that those students were determined to explore and learn, and ignored the cries of, “It’s tough.”

There is always a learning curve involved whenever one is acquiring a new skill, and Linux is no exception. If students are taught to use and program on Linux, they will not just learn, but will also find it simple. It would just seem natural to them — learning something that they did not know earlier. “Linux is tough” is a modern-day myth that has to be busted. If you are an educator, please do your bit. You are the one that students look up to, and if you show them the right way, they will follow your example.
Getting Linux up and runningscience-Programming
Okay, once you have decided to use Linux, how do you go about it? You may have heard of lots of different Linux “distros” (also called distributions): Ubuntu, Fedora, Debian and more. Why so many “Linuxes”? Let me explain. Technically, “Linux” is the name of a kernel (for more information, refer to this Wikipedia article, or the official home of Linux). Since a kernel is of little use on its own, user-space tools from the GNU project (including the most common implementation of the C library, a popular shell, and many common UNIX tools that carry out many basic operating system tasks) were combined with the Linux kernel to make a usable operating system. The graphical user interface (or GUI) used by most Linux systems is built on top of an implementation of the X Window System. Different free software projects and vendors build different combinations of packages and features, to provide varying Linux experiences to different target audiences — thus resulting in myriad Linux distributions.
So which Linux distribution should you use? Ubuntu and Fedora both have individually made the Linux experience very user-friendly for casual users of the computer — for Internet surfing, e-mail and document processing needs. Either of these is ideal for you to get started with.
Linux installation can be somewhat tricky, though, especially if you intend to set up a dual-boot system where you can boot either Linux or your old Windows. Otherwise, it’s quite simple: download the CD (ISO) image, burn it to a disc, boot your computer from it, and let it install! The best way to do a dual-boot set-up the first time is to get hold of someone in your school, locality or office who knows about it, and ask them to guide you.
Also, there are other options if you want to try Linux either without installing it, without replacing Windows or doing a dual-boot set-up. See the Dealing with practicalities section towards the end of this article, for some of these ideas.
The Ultimate Linux Newbie Guide is a good reference to help you learn things yourself. With Linux, an experimental approach to learning helps a lot. So, back up your data, and get started with those install discs if you can’t find anyone to help you out. These days, most mcu-programmer-farLinux distributions come with just the essential applications and libraries installed — which probably won’t be sufficient for programming needs.
To enable easy installation of new software, most distributions have a package manager (in the Linux world, software is distributed in the form of “packages”), which you use to easily download and install new software from the Internet. The Ultimate Linux Newbie Guide is a good reference for this topic.
So that this article will be of maximum utility, I will try to be more general, and avoid favouring any particular distribution.
Choosing a text editor
We won’t be using an Integrated Development Environment (IDE), at least, initially. We will just do it the simple way: write code using a text editor, save it, and compile/interpret it using an appropriate compiler/interpreter. In the Linux world, you have a plethora of text editors to choose from. One of the editors, such as gedit or kwrite, will definitely be installed when you install Linux — you can use either. If you install a distribution like Ubuntu, which has the GNOME desktop environment, then you will have gedit already installed. It’s just like Notepad, only more useful and feature-rich.
C/C++ programming on Linux
C is usually the first language taught to many students in Indian engineering schools and colleges, so let’s first look at how we program in C on Linux. Note that the C code that you will write on Linux will be the same that you would write on Windows/DOS, as long as you are writing ANSI C code. Some library functions, such as those provided by conio.h and graphics.h, are not part of the ANSI standard. Hence, you won’t be able to use them on Linux.
The C compiler you use on Linux is GCC. It is part of the GNU Compiler Collection. Open a terminal and run the command: gcc. If you see something like the following output, it means GCC is already installed.
gcc: no input files
However, if you see something like “Command not found”, then you will have to install GCC using the package manager.
Besides a compiler, you will also need the C standard library, called glibc, to compile your C programs correctly. Type in locate glibc and check the output. If it shows directory structures of the form /foo/bar/glibc or the like, then you have glibc installed; else you need to install it.
Okay, now that we have confirmed the presence of a text editor, a compiler and the standard library, let us write our first code in C on Linux. For the purpose of this article, let’s create a sub-directory called ‘codes’ under your ‘home’ directory, in which we will store all our source code.
Start up gedit and input this simple C code to print the factorial of a number:
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#include
int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
    int n, i,fact=1;
    printf(“Enter a number for which you want to find the factorial:: “);
    scanf(“%d”, &n);
    for(i=1;i<=n;i++)
    fact=fact*i;
    printf("Factorial of %d is :: %dn", n,fact);
    return 0;
}
Save this code in the codes sub-directory with the name fact.c. Launch your shell program (terminal), and run cd codes to go to this directory. Once you are there, issue the following command:
gcc factorial.c
After executing the command, run ls and you will see an a.out file in the current directory. This is the executable file of your C program, compiled and linked with the appropriate libraries. To execute it, run (note the leading ./, which is essential!):
./a.out
Enter a number for which you want to find the factorial:: 5
Factorial of 5 is :: 120
Congratulations, you have just written your first C program on Linux! That was just the normal C that you write on DOS or Windows — no surprises there! A bit more about this a.out file: This is the Linux equivalent of the .exe file that you would see under DOS/Windows; it is the executable form of your code. As you might have already guessed, this file cannot be executed on DOS or Windows, since it is in a different format.
Now, instead of having to rename your executable file each time you compile, you can specify the output file name to the compiler:
gcc -o factorial factorial.c
Try a few more programs from your C programming and data structures classes.
The C Programming Language is a well-known programming book by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie, which teaches you C programming with a strong Linux flavour. It would be a good idea to try the examples and exercise programs from this book to get a flavour of C programming on Linux.
Let’s now write our first C++ program on Linux. The cycle of coding, compilation and execution is very similar to that for C, except for the compiler we use, which is g++. Check if it’s already installed by running the command in a terminal, like we did for gcc. Next, use your package manager to check if libstdc++, the standard C++ library, is installed (if not, install it). Once both are installed, open up gedit and type this simple C++ program:
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#include
#include
using namespace std;
int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
    string s1=”Hello”;
    string s2=”World”;
    cout <<s1+" " + s2 << "n";
    return 0;
}
Save this file as string-demo.cxx in the codes subdirectory.
Compile and execute the file:
g++ -o string-demo string-demo.cxx
./string-demo
Running the above command should output the following on the terminal:
Hello World
The C++ code you see is standard C++, with the .h omitted from the header files. C++ source files conventionally use one of the suffixes .C, .cc, .cpp, .c++, .cp, or .cxx.
Let us now write a simple C++ program that uses classes:
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#include
using namespace std;
class Circle{
    float r;
    public:
    void init(float x) /* Inline function */
    {
        r = x;
    }
    float area();
};
float Circle::area()
{
    return 3.14*r*r;
}
int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
    float radius;
    Circle circle;
    cout <> radius;
    circle.init(radius);
    cout << "Area of the Circle:: "<<circle.area()<<"n";
    return 0;
}
Save the file in the codes sub-directory as class-demo.cxx.
Compile and execute it:

g++ -o class-demo class-demo.cxx
./class-demo
Enter the radius of the circle:: 4
Area of the Circle:: 50.24
Assuming that you have been able to compile these programs successfully, I would now recommend you go ahead and write, compile and test some of your C/C++ assignments and problems using gcc and g++. If you face any issues, you are most welcome to ping me.
Java programming on Linux
Java is perhaps the next most widely taught language in Indian schools and colleges after C/C++. The best part of Java programming on Linux is that you use the same tools that you would use on Windows — yes, the Sun Java Development Kit.
To install the JDK on Linux, download the installer for Linux from its official website.
Choose the .bin file, and not the *rpm.bin file, unless you know what you are doing. (The .bin file is the equivalent of .exe on Windows). Once the download is complete, in your terminal, cd to the directory where the file has been downloaded, and use the following
commands:
chmod +x jdk-6u18-linux-i586.bin
./jdk-6u18-linux-i586.bin
The file names above might differ depending on the JDK version that you have downloaded. The first line makes the installer executable, and the second line executes it. The installer should start now, and you should see the “Sun Microsystems, Inc. Binary Code License Agreement”.
Accept the licence, and the extraction of the JDK should start. Once the installer has exited, you should see a new sub-directory named ‘jdk1.6.0_18’ inside the current directory. If you are familiar with Java programming on Windows, this should be easily recognisable. Inside this directory is the bin sub-directory, which has the Java compiler (javac), Java interpreter (java), and others.
With this, we are all set; let’s write our first Java program on Linux. Fire up gedit and write the following Java code, which shows the usage of an array of integers:

linux_cat_img
import java.util.Random;
class ArrayDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        int[] arr = new int[10];
        for(int i=0;i<10;i++)
        arr[i] = (new Random()).nextInt();
        for(int i=0;i<10;i++)
        System.out.println("Element at index " + i + "is::" + arr[i]);
    }
}
Save the code to a file ArrayDemo.java, then compile and run it as follows:
/home/amit/jdk1.6.0_18/bin/javac ArrayDemo.java
/home/amit/jdk1.6.0_18/bin/java ArrayDemo
Note the first two commands, where I have given the full path to the location of the javac and java executables. Depending on where you have extracted the JDK, your path will vary.
Running the second command should output the following in your terminal:
Element at index 0is:: 480763582
Element at index 1is:: -1644219394
Element at index 2is:: -67518401
Element at index 3is:: 619258385
Element at index 4is:: 810878662
Element at index 5is:: 1055578962
Element at index 6is:: 1754667714
Element at index 7is:: 503295725
Element at index 8is:: 1129666934
Element at index 9is:: 1084281888
So, this is how you can compile, run, test and debug your Java programs.
OpenJDK
An article about Java programming in an open source magazine would be incomplete without talking about OpenJDK. It’s good for you to be aware of this project. As you might have already guessed, it is a GPL-licensed open source implementation of the Java Standard Edition — i.e., the source code of the JDK that you are so familiar with, is also now available for your scrutiny, in case you don’t like something in the current JDK.
So, is this a different Java? No — you write the same Java code. You can install OpenJDK from your Linux distribution’s package manager (it may come pre-installed with some distributions). Installation instructions are available here.
Dealing with practicalities
Due to various reasons, deploying Linux lab-wide may not always be possible. In such cases, it’s a good idea to have a single Linux machine in the lab, acting as an SSH server; you can install the necessary SSH client software on other operating systems, which will enable connecting to the Linux machine remotely.
This machine should be of a relatively good configuration, depending on how many students will be using it for their coding and compilation — a dual- or quad-core CPU with 4 GB of RAM and a hard disk of at least 320 GB is a good idea. For Windows, Putty is a widely used SSH client. If writing the code on Windows and copying it to the Linux machine to compile and run, you will
also need to download the pscp program from the site, which lets you copy files from the local machine to the Linux SSH server.
If you need a GUI session from the Linux server to be accessible on the Windows machine (for example, while doing GUI programming) then investigate the OpenNX server (to be installed on the Linux server machine) and the NoMachine NX client for Windows. A machine with the configuration given above should support around 10 user sessions before it starts slowing down. Fine-tuning the desktop manager (use a light one like LXDE or XFCE) and using lighter editors like GVim for writing code, is a good start.
Another option (which does not need a dedicated Linux server machine) is to install Linux in a virtual machine on your desktop. This could also prove useful on a home computer. VirtualBox is virtualisation software that, when installed on your Windows system, will allow you to create a virtual machine, inside which you can install Linux without disrupting your Windows installation. You will, of course, need some free disk space (8 GB or more) for the virtual machine’s disk file. You don’t need to burn the Linux installation ISO onto a CD in this case — you can simply instruct VirtualBox to use the ISO image file as a disc inserted in the CD-ROM drive of the virtual machine.
This is also a good way to practice installing Linux, and to see how easy it can be. For Ubuntu, in particular, there is Wubi which lets you install (and uninstall) Ubuntu like any other Windows application, in a simple and safe way, “with a single click”. The Ubuntu files are stored in a single folder in your Windows drive, and an option to boot Ubuntu is added to your Windows boot-loader menu.
However, hard-disk access is slightly slower than installation to a dedicated partition. If your Windows drive is very fragmented, the performance will degenerate further. Hibernation is not supported under Wubi. Moreover, the Wubi filesystem is more vulnerable to hard reboots (turning off the power) and power failures than a normal installation to a dedicated partition, which provides a more robust filesystem that can better tolerate such events.
In general, programming on Linux will also require a decent level of familiarity regarding working with shell commands. Get familiar with working with the shell. Try to minimise the use of the mouse 🙂
Using your favourite IDE on Linux
If you have been using any IDEs for your development needs, it should be great news that two very popular IDEs — NetBeans and Eclipse — have Linux versions as well, and both of them support C, C++ and Java development. For GNOME-based Linux distributions, Anjuta DevStudio is another powerful IDE for C, C++ and Java (and other languages too). All three should be available in your distribution’s package manager.
To conclude this article, I would like to urge you to make an honest effort to embrace Linux for programming. It’s a much better world to be in. I would love to address any queries/concerns/comments/suggestions that you may have, regarding this article.

Puppy Linux Latest Release and Help

Slacko Puppy 5.5
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Secure Your Online Banking With A Linux Live CD: I’d rather be safe than sorry – I’m into an ounce of prevention.. banking online through a Linux Live CD is my ounce of prevention.
– Bill Mullins

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“Anyone NOT having used Puppy 5.2.8 Lucid is missing THE Linux to go to for first-time and long-term users.” – From the Forum

April 5, 2012 – Update 5 is here, with OpenOffice (lupulibre) version added in the download folder. Lucid Puppy version uses kernel 2.6.33.2 and allows the user to install his/her favorite browser (user installs it from the Internet at first boot).

Download latest version of 5.2.8 from ibiblio.org: Get lupu-528.005.iso or explore the folder.

Download latest version of 5.2.8 from nluug.nl: Get lupu-528.005.iso or explore the folder.

MD5 Checksum: 8ad170c46b523436776398fa5ce39fa4

ISO Size: 132.6 MB
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Freedom Linux

Freedom Linux


Download Latest Release

→ Get Lucid Puppy (Ubuntu Lucid-Compatible)
→ Get Windows Installer (EXE installer)
→ Download old version
*NEW* Slacko Puppy (Slackware-Compatible Build)

March 5, 2013 – The developers group led by 01micko has released the latest build of Slacko Puppy, version 5.5:

Open ibiblio.org folder of Slacko 5.5 and choose your preferred ISO*.

Open nluug.nl folder of Slacko 5.5 and choose your preferred ISO*.

Other download sites are at aarnet, internode, UOC, and VCU.

ISO Size: 165 MB

* Note: The PAE build is for machines with more than 4 GB of memory chips.
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puppylogo96
Slacko Puppy is built from a “Puppy builder” system named Woof (http://bkhome.org/woof), which can build a Puppy Linux distribution from the binary packages of any other distro. There are many “puppies” built with Woof, including Lucid, Wary, Racy, FatDog, and Slacko.
Each “Puppy distro” built by Woof is a distinctive distribution in its own right, with unique features. You choose a puppy based on your particular needs, be it specific hardware, software, or access to and compatibility with the package repositories of a particular major distro.

===============
release of Puppy 4.3.1 (2009-10-17) up to the release of Quirky 1.0 (2010-05-05)
========
release date of Wary and Racy 5.5 (2013-03-03)
==========================================
release of Precise 5.4.3 (2012-12-18):
======================================
Slacko Puppy 5.5
5th March, 2013

Slacko Puppy is built from Slackware-14.0 binary TXZ packages, hence has binary compatibility with Slackware and access to the Slackware, Salix and Slacky package repositories. There are comprehensive release notes available.

This is the an Improved version of the successful Slacko 5.4 and all packages are fully compatible

Slacko 5.5 has many improvements due to the heavy development of the woof build system and the many bugfixes to the Slacko base packages (independant from woof). Through the dedication of many testers and developers we were able to produce what is a great working dog Puppy that can rejuvenate your hardware and show it’s potential.
For more information on the improvements in Woof (build system) read the above Woof Release notes.
Release Notes

Improved SFS Manager
Improved Updates Manager – to get the latest Slackware security fixes New kernels following LTS branches
Improved graphics support, with KMS and Mesa
Proprietary video driver upgrades available for Nvidia and AMD/ATI graphics
Internationalization improvements 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
puppybluscreenshot
Choices
Slacko 5.5 is available with a choice of kernels, 3.2.33 compiled for processors that do not support PAE and 3.4.17 for processors that do. The included browser is the latest Firefox, changed from Opera due to the lack of Opera development which is in a transitionsl phase. Of course all major browsers are available from the Puppy Package Manager.
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Lots of puppies…
Spup (Slacko)
“Spup” is our generic name for puppies built with Slackware binary packages. The main reason behind Spup is binary compatibility with Slackware packages, and the Puppy Package Manager can install from any of the Slackware repositories. The foremost Spup right now is “Slacko”, and is currently one of our official flagship puppies.
Upup (Precise)
“Upup” is our generic name for puppies built with Ubuntu packages. Our latest is Precise Puppy, built from Ubuntu Precise Pangolin binary packages. What you get is a very small distro (the live-CD is about 150MB) yet with just about every application you would need and the speed and ease-of-use that Puppy is famous for. All of the advantages of Puppy, plus binary compatibility with Ubuntu .deb packages — Puppy’s own Puppy Package Manager will install any packages from the vast Ubuntu repositories!
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So many more puppies!
It is so easy to create a custom Puppy, either by using Woof or remastering the live-CD (there is an super-easy remaster program in the Setup menu), and this has resulted in a huge choice of custom puppies. The main problem is finding out just what is available. A good starting point is the Community News page:
http://puppylinux.org/news/
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Open source

Open source

http://puppylinux.org/news/
http://www.murga-linux.com/puppy/viewtopic.php?p=523842&sid=a6d3766f0f6538ca86365ad2b71b3690
http://adventuresofalinuxnovice.blogspot.in/
http://www.downloadplex.com/News/Linux/Linux-Distributions/Puppy-Linux-4.1-Released_22486.html
http://puppylinux.linuxfreedom.com
http://www.linuxjournal.com/content/spotlight-linux-puppy-linux-52
http://massornament.org/2010/06/puppy-linux-4-3-on-an-old-laptop/
http://kbd-thinkingoutloud.blogspot.in/2011/07/puppy-linux-525-first-impression.html
http://www.itrunsonlinux.com/news/71-puppy-linux-421
http://itaworldservergtawsg.forumfree.it/
http://ficara.altervista.org/?cat=52

http://www.freesoftwaremagazine.com/articles/free_computing
http://allthingsd.com/20130225/asus-tries-another-phone-tablet-hybrid-this-one-with-intel-inside/

http://apple.slashdot.org/story/11/08/19/237235/more-photoshopped-evidence-in-apple-v-samsung
http://eeepc.net/puppy-linux-loaded-on-norhtec-gecko-edubook/

http://murga-linux.com/puppy/viewtopic.php?t=84346

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Overview and Getting Started

More about the Puppy project

Linux is a free operating system, and Puppy Linux is a special build of Linux meant to make computing easy and fast.

Puppy Linux enables you to save money while doing more work, even allowing you to do magic by recovering data from destroyed PCs or by removing malware from Windows. See these example articles: recovering files from Windows and safe Internet banking with Puppy Linux.

With Puppy Linux, you can carry your programs and data anywhere.
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Easy – Just use a CD or USB flash to boot a PC. Puppy Linux is downloadable as ISO, an image that can be burned to CD or DVD.
Fast – Because Puppy is small, it can live in your PC’s memory and be ready to quickly execute your commands, whereas in other systems, programs are first read from drive storage before being executed.
Save Money – Even if your PC has no hard disk (ex, broken hard disk), you can still boot Puppy via CD or USB and continue working. Old PCs that no longer work with new systems will still work good-as-new with Puppy.
Do More – Puppy boots in less than a minute, even in old PCs, and it does not require antivirus software. Administering Puppy is quick and minimal. With Puppy, you just have to take care of your data, which you can easily save to USB flash (Then forget about your operating system!). Your data can be read by other computers.
Do Magic -Help your friends suffering from computer malware by booting Puppy and removing malware from their PC (use antivirus that is built-in or can be installed in Puppy). Example – bad Autorun.inf is easily removed by Puppy (Just delete it as well as its companion exe program). If your friend thinks that she has lost data from her corrupted hard disk, boot Puppy and try saving her data!
Carry Anywhere (Portable) – Because Puppy is able to live in CD/DVD or USB flash, as well as save data to these same devices, you can carry your programs and data with you.
PuppyLogo
Are you now ready for Puppy? Keep these important reminders before using Puppy:

You don’t have to install Puppy (to hard disk) to use it. Simply burn the ISO to CD/DVD and boot the PC or laptop with it. Once booted, you can then install it to USB flash (see the Setup menu), so you can use it for booting the PC when a CD is not available.
You don’t have to save data to hard drive to work with Puppy. You can save data to USB flash or even to Internet storage (like http://www.drop.io ). When installed to USB flash, Puppy consumes only a little over 100 MB, or about 256 MB with OpenOffice. You can use the same USB flash (where Puppy is installed) for saving data.
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More About Puppy Linux
What is Puppy Linux?

Puppy Linux is an operating system for computers. Other well-known operating systems are Microsoft Windows, Apple OSX, and MS-DOS. Puppy Linux is based on GNU/Linux. It is completely free and open source software.
How is Puppy Different?

Small size, ~100MB! This lends itself to some very useful and unique features.
‘Live’ booting from CDs, DVDs, USB flash drives, and other portable media.
Runs from RAM, making it unusually fast even in old PCs and in netbooks with solid state storage media.
Very low minimum system requirements.
Boot time is well under a minute, 30-40 seconds in most systems.
Includes a wide range of applications: wordprocessors, spreadsheets, internet browsers, games, image editors and many utilities. Extra software in the form of dotpets. There is a GUI Puppy Software Installer included.
Puppy is easy to use and little technical knowledge is assumed. Most hardware is automatically detected.
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What are Puppy’s Goals?

The Puppy Linux goals (adapted from Barry Kauler) are:

Puppy will easily install to USB, Zip, hard drive or other storage media.
Booting from CD (or DVD), Puppy can load itself totally into RAM so that the CD (DVD) drive is then free for other purposes.
Booting from DVD (or CD), Puppy can save all work to the DVD (CD).
Booting from USB flash drive (or other flash media), Puppy will minimize writes to extend its life.
Puppy will be extremely friendly for Linux newbies.
Puppy will boot up and run extraordinarily fast.
Puppy will have all the applications needed for daily use.
Puppy will just work, no hassles.
Puppy will breathe new life into old PCs.
Puppy will load and run totally in RAM for diskless thin stations.
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How is Puppy organized?

The community is marked by openness and flexibility, and gets organized around goals. Barry Kauler is traditionally the chief developer who leads the development of official releases, the latest being version 4.3.1. Community Editions (official CE versions) are created by teams, the latest being version 5.1.1, and before this, version 4.2.1. Projects are run by individuals or groups and posted/discussed in the Forum.
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Who owns Puppy?

We all do. Puppy is covered by the GPL/LGPL license.
Who is the creator and how does he control the project?

Puppy Linux was first released in June 2003 by Barry Kauler. The community that later developed is completely open, without any formal agenda or structure. It often takes newcomers a while to realize that, other than being friendly, there aren’t really any rules to Puppy. If you want to do something, make a new Puplet, offer your skills or take things in a new direction, just do so and be surprised that support will be around. However, questions will be asked so be ready to defend your ideas. Refer to what Barry Kauler has written about how the project is run.
Where does the name come from?
Puppy as immortalized in Barry Kauler’s avatar22486

“The real Puppy, the mascot for Puppy Linux, was a very tiny dog, a Chihuahua, but totally fearless. He didn’t seem to know that he was vulnerable because of his small size. Once when my sister was visiting my country property, she brought her Blue Heeler, a very solid middle-sized dog named Muti. We were out walking, and suddenly there was a substantial rustling of branches of a large bush, something was in or behind the bush. Muti took fright and ran back behind the legs of my sister, whereas Puppy got into launch position in front of the bush and barked furiously. It turned out to be my dad playing a trick on the dogs. Puppy used to chase kangaroos and other big wild animals. Anyway, Puppy Linux is like that, reckless, unshackled, in memory of the mascot.” – Barry Kauler
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Ubuntu 13.04 Raring Ringtail

Ubuntu 13.04
Ubuntu 13.04 Raring Ringtail

Open source

Open source


To download follow :http://www.ubuntu.com/download/desktop

Two options are there when you download Ubuntu for a desktop PC. Ubuntu 13.04 gives you all the latest features, while Ubuntu 12.04 LTS comes with extended support.

Ubuntu 13.04 will be supported for 9 months and includes cutting-edge new features.

ring tail

ring tail


Ubuntu 13.04 and paving the way to 14.04 LTS

On the cloud infrastructure side, the expansion of our ecosystem plays well into the diversification we see in technology choices along the cloud stack. Ubuntu now works seamlessly with various products such as Ceph for storage, Floodlight for SDN, and the Canonical-VMWare collaboration links OpenStack compute (Nova) to the ESX hypervisor. Offering a ‘High Availability’ deployment configuration for core OpenStack components such as RabbitMQ and MySQL helps meet service provider requirements for maximum uptime and reliability. We expect this to be extended to other Juju charms in the near future, offering a complete HA environment for cloud infrastructure.

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ubuntu


Features:
Window snapping, popularised by the ‘Aero Snap’ feature of Windows 7, is a handy way to quickly display two applications side-by-side without overlapping, or maximise a window without needing to click a button.

For 13.04 a bit of attention has been given to the animation shown on screen to tell you that ‘you’re about to snap’. Developers have changed its appearance from that of a generic orange box spreading outwards to a semi-transparent copy of the window about to be snapped.

New Unity Preview Animations

Unity Previews, introduced last year in Ubuntu 12.10, are a great way to see more information about a search result without needing to open it up fully.
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For the latest release the preview reveal animation has been tweaked, and applications icons at the edges of the preview “ghosted” save for the one being previewed.
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Ubuntu desktop is the centralised ‘Online Accounts‘ dashboard.
Originally planned to arrive on the desktop last year is this – the new Ubuntu One Sync Menu. With a single click you can see whether you’re online; share a file; or check the status of recently uploaded files.
Ubuntu’s Bluetooth panel menu has been jazzed up with new toggle for turning on/off Bluetooth and visibility.
A core goal for Ubuntu 13.04 is to get Ubuntu running on a Nexus 7 tablet. To be clear, this is not going to be a tablet Unity interface running on the 8/16GB Nexus 7ubuntunexus7-large_001
But thanks to an inspired decision last October, Ubuntu 13.04 will use a mobile device as reference for tuning the core of Ubuntu. This will result into a smooth, snappy, and faster experience.

ASUS Eee PC 1015CX

The ASUS Eee PC 1015CX, with its 10.1” LED backlit screen (1024×600), features a stylish seashell design that has been taken a step further with more rounded curves to give it a streamlined shape. The new Intel® Atom Cedar Trail N2600 processor offers 3x better graphic performance, supports Full HD video playback, and improves battery life. The fan-less design on the 1015CX ensures it operates in silence.
Exclusive ASUS Super Hybrid Engine II (SHE II) with Instant on enables 2-second resume from sleep, with up to 17 days of standby time. SHE II also offers two different power modes, giving you the option to maximize performance or conserve battery life. Built-in data security measures will automatically save and secure your data in the hard drive should the battery level fall below 5%.
Stay connected through a variety of ways with the Eee PC 1015CX. With built in 802.11b/g/n Wi-Fi, staying online while on-the-go has never been easier. With DLNA support, enjoy music, photos, and videos by streaming them to any DLNA compatible devices like flat-panel TVs. Videos can also be viewed on HDTVs through the 1015CXs built-in HDMI port.
The energy-efficient Intel® Atom Cedar Trail processor and SHE II technology gives the ASUS Eee PC 1015CX up to 11 hours of battery life. You can enjoy all day computing without worrying about the need to recharge.
The 1015CX also comes with the ASUS-exclusive Eee Docking platform, which serves as a convenient, one-stop solution that grants you easy access to digital content, services, and other useful software.

Enhance your Eee PC experience by streaming or downloading a wide variety of digital content; sharing photos, music, videos or documents across all your computers; or simply make use of a host of apps that make your computing experience that much easier.
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Specification

Operating System-Linux-Display-10.1″ LED Backlight WSVGA (1024×600) Non-Glare Screen

CPU-Intel® Atom N2600 (Dual Core; 1.6GHz) Processor

Memory-DDR3, 1 x SO-DIMM, 2GB

Storage-2.5″ SATA 320GB HDD

Wireless Data Network*-WLAN 802.11 b/g/n@2.4GHz

Camera-0.3 MP Camera

Audio-Hi-Definition Audio CODEC
High Quality Speaker
High Quality Mic

Interface-1 x VGA Connector
3 x USB 2.0
1 x LAN RJ-45
1 x HDMI
1 x Audio Jack (Headphone/Mic-In)
1 x Card Reader : SD/ SDHC/ MMC

Battery-6 Cell Li-ion
*Subject to system configuration and usage.
*Battery life may vary by use. Stated battery life measured by playing 720p video at 100cd/m2 brightness, with an external microphone, Wi-Fi turned on, Gmail logged in.

Dimensions-262 x 178 x 23.6 ~36.4 mm (WxDxH)

Color-Matte : Black, Red, White

Installing Windows After Ubuntu

deepamInstalling Windows After Ubuntu
Normally when Windows is installed after Ubuntu the “Master Boot Record”, MBR, will be overwritten. You can bootup off a LiveCD and repair the MBR. However, there are 2 different approaches:
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1. Recovering GRUB after reinstalling Windows
With the normal default Grub2 this guide should help
https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Grub2#Reinstalling%20from%20LiveCD
The older Grub, sometimes called Grub-legacy or Grub1 was used up until Ubuntu 9.10. The default for 9.10 was Grub1 but installs would drift over to Grub2 without users being aware of the change. With any current Ubuntu install is is wise to install, or re-install Grub2 as shown in the link above.
If you run an older Ubuntu or had any trouble with Grub2 then Grub1 & Lilo are still available. To fix the MBR with an older LiveCD to access a Grub command-line:
1. Boot into a LiveCD
2. Open a terminal
3. Open the GRUB Command-line utility by typing
sudo grub
4. Find where Grub is. If this gives a few different answers then you will need to find the correct one, perhaps by trial-and-error.
find /boot/grub/stage1
5. Tell GRUB which partition to tell the MBR your Grub is on by entering
root (hdA,B)
The coordinates A,B are where ‘A’ is the hard-drive number, starting at 0, and ‘B’ is the partition number, starting at 0. For example, if Ubuntu was installed on the second partition of the first hard-drive, the command should be
root (hd0,1)
6. Tell GRUB which drive’s MBR to fix
setup (hd0)
Replace 0 only in the extremely unlikely event that your bios does not use the first hard-drive as the boot device. Typically Ubuntu might be on any drive but the bios will almost always go to the first drive’s MBR to find out where to find the boot-loader.
7. Leave the GRUB Command line
quit
and reboot.
2. Master Boot Record backup and re-replacement
Back-up the existing MBR, install Windows, replace your backup overwriting the Windows boot code:
1. Create an NTFS partition for windows (using fdisk, GPartEd or whatever tool you are familiar with)
2. Backup the MBR e.g. dd if=/dev/sda of=/mbr.bin bs=446 count=1
3. Install windows
4. Boot into a LiveCD
5. Mount your root partition in the LiveCD
6. Restore the MBR e.g. dd if=/media/sda/mbr.bin of=/dev/sda bs=446 count=1
7. Restart and Ubuntu will boot
8. Setup grub to boot windows
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Issues with Windows XP and NTFS
The Ubuntu installer has included support for resizing NTFS partitions since Ubuntu 5.10 (Breezy Badger) was released way back in 2005. Very few problems have been reported relative to the huge number of times that the installer has been used. If you tried the above procedure and have had no luck, it might be that there is a pre-existing problem either in the file system, in the partition table or the hard disk.
First you should try running CHKDSK before trying again to resize the partition, and if you are using the Alternate CD, defragging might help. It is recommended that you run CHKDSK once again after resizing your NTFS partition.
Also, try the following alternative methods:
Using QtParted from the System Rescue CD
1. Boot into Windows and backup any valuable documents/photos etc onto removable media such as CD-R/DVD-R.
2. Run the Windows disk check tool (Error-checking) on C: a couple of times (the results can be seen in the Administrative Tools > Event Viewer > Application under a “Winlogon” entry).
3. Run the Windows defragmentation tool on C:
4. Download the System Rescue CD ISO image (100 MB; has several very useful software tools).
5. Burn the ISO image to a CD.
6. Boot from the CD and hit Enter when you see the message “Boot:”.
7. When you get a command prompt, enter:
run_qtparted
1. Select your disk on the graphical screen (most likely /dev/hda).
2. Select your NTFS partition to be resized (most likely /dev/hda1).
3. Right click with the mouse and choose Resize.
4. Set the new partition size.
5. Commit your changes in the File -> Commit menu. If your keyboard and mouse stop responding during resizing then please just be patient.
6. Once your changes are saved, remove the System Rescue CD and insert your Ubuntu installation CD.
7. Reboot and install Ubuntu into the free space.
Using GParted from UNetbootin-PartedMagic
Another approach to resizing partitions, which does not require a CD, is to load PartedMagic from Windows via the UNetbootin PartedMagic Loader:
1. Download and install the Windows (.exe) file, then reboot.
2. Select the UNetbootin-partedmagic entry after rebooting, and wait as PartedMagic boots up.
3. Start the partition manager by clicking the GParted icon on the the panel.
4. Select your disk (probably /dev/sda) via the drop-down menu on the top-right corner of the interface.
5. Right-click the NTFS partition to be resized (probably /dev/sda1), and select the “resize” option.
6. Drag the slider to specify the new size the NTFS partition should be resized to, then press OK.
7. Press the “Apply” button to resize the disk, then reboot once done.
8. Upon the next Windows boot, click OK when prompted to remove UNetbootin-partedmagic to remove its boot menu entry.