Leap second: Is one second difference in time too much? – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)



Question: When is a minute not a minute?

Answer: At 2359 Greenwich Mean Time today (9:59am AEST Wednesday), when the world will experience a minute that will last 61 seconds.

The reason for the weird event is something called the leap second.

That’s when timekeepers adjust high-precision clocks so that they are in sync with Earth’s rotation, which is affected by the gravitational tug of the Sun and the Moon.

Few of the planet’s 7.25 billion people are likely to be aware of the change and even fewer will have set plans for how they will spend the extra moment.

But for horologists, or timekeepers, the additional second is a big deal and there is a wrangle as to whether it is vital or should be scrapped.

Service of the Rotation of the Earth (SRE) director Daniel Gambis admits “there is a downside”, the poetically named branch of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS), is in charge of saying when the second should be added.

The leap second is not something that needs to be added to that old clock on your mantlepiece, but instead its importance is for super-duper timepieces, especially those using the frequency of atoms as their tick-tock mechanism.

At the top of the atomic-clock range are “optical lattices” using strontium atoms, the latest example of which, unveiled in April, is accurate to 15 billion years – longer than the Universe has existed.

Outside the lab, caesium and rubidium clocks are the workhorses of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites, which have to send synchronised signals so that sat-nav receivers can triangulate their position on Earth.

On Earth, big-data computers may be less manic than atomic clocks but still need highly precise internal timers.

The internet, for instance, sends data around the world in tiny packets that are then stitched together in micro-seconds.

Some algorithms in financial trading count on gaining a tiny slice of a second over rivals to make a profit.

There have been 25 occasions since 1971 when the leap second was added in an effort to simplify Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), the official moniker for GMT.

But over the last 15 years, a debate has intensified about whether the change should be made, given the hassle.

Roland Lehoucq of France’s Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) said critics argue it has become difficult to manage given the amount of equipment today that has internal clocks.

“The problem is synchronisation between computers. They do sort things out, but sometimes it can take several days,” he said.

Qantas servers ‘went down for several hours’ previously

Mr Gambis said the previous modification, on June 30, 2012, was disruptive for many internet servers.

The online reservation system for Qantas “went down for several hours,” Mr Gambis said.

SYRTE Laboratory atomic clocks specialist Sebastien Bize said it is time to get rid of the leap second.

“It causes complications and bugs,” Mr Bize said.

Mr Gambis defended the change on the grounds of principle.

“Should man be the servant of technology? Or should technology be the servant of man?” Mr Gambis said.

After all, if the world got rid of the leap second, time as counted by mankind would no longer be coupled to the exact rotation of the planet it lives on.

“That would mean in 2000 years, there would be an hour’s difference between UTC and the time it takes for the Earth to complete one complete turn,” Mr Gambis said.

“It would mean that, on a scale of tens of thousands of years, people will be having their breakfast at two o’clock in the morning.”

Nazhika to Hour Convertor

Nazhika to Hour Convertor


Traditional astrologers measure time in terms of Nazhika and Vinazhika with reference to sunrise
or sunset.
In North India Nazhika is called Ghati and Vinazhika is Vighati.


N2 H Convertor
For example an astrologer may write in the horoscope that “X was born 15 nazhika and 25
vinazhika after sunrise”.


A day is divided into 60nazhika during which time the earth rotates by 360 degrees. This means that a nazhika is the time taken by earth to rotate by 6 degrees.

As one nazhika is divided into 60 vinazhika, a day as 3600 vinazhikas.
Conversion of time from nazhika system to standard time is straight forward since one nazhika equal 24 minutes and one vinazhika 24


However, certain complications arise since the reference may be made to before or after Sunrise and since the time may move over
to the next day or go back to the previous dayas per standard time conventions.