The Traditional Images

From the very ancient time, when words and its permutations and combinations that which formed Sentences and languages were unknown to mankind, ideas and thoughts were carved out in stones. Human Brain,assimilate, process ,store and retrieve data by a complicated visual imaging procedure. In any Memory enhancement training or courses, Visual techniques are mainly used. Thus Visual Interpretation becomes much significant.


Human brain

“The human brain is the best-organized, most functional three pounds of matter in the known universe,”
[- Robert Sylwester ,A Celebration of Neurons: An Educator’s Guide to the Human Brain].

Power Encapsuled

“It’s responsible for Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony, computers, the Sistine Chapel, automobiles, the Second World War, Hamlet, apple pie, and a whole lot more.”

The average brain consists of over 100 billion nerve cells, trillions of support cells and dozens of structures.

The limbic system:

  • The hippocampus: The hippocampus is essential for main education functions including learning and memory.
  • The amygdale: There are two amygdala in the brain. They are essential to feeling emotion such as fear, impulse, and rage. They also help us perceive emotion in others.
  • The thalamus: The thalamus sits between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain and acts as a conductor, receiving sensory information and transmitting it to the cerebral cortex and vice versa.
  • The hypothalamus: The hypothalamus is located just above the brainstem and controls several involuntary and vital functions in your body. The alerts it gives your body are important to signal you to action. Mainly it controls body temperature, hunger, thirst and sleep cycles.
  • The pituitary gland: The pituitary gland is only the size of a pea but plays a major role in brain function. It is at the base of the brain at the bottom of the hypothalamus. The pituitary gland mainly regulates hormones and thus plays a role in growth, puberty, metabolism, blood pressure and sugar levels
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There are many interrelated parts that make up the brain, providing essential functions necessary to human life.
Human brain functions are responsible for humans being able to talk and reason, as well as process visuals and emotions.

When you make a decision, you probably don’t think about how much you’re using your brain to make that choice.
The cerebral cortex, your brain’s primary structure, is highly involved with how you learn “new information, form thoughts and make decisions.

Four main brain structures:

The cerebrum: This is the largest part of the brain, making up about “90 percent of the brain’s weight,” according to Mind Disorders. It is,“responsible for higher brain function, which includes the interpretation and reception of the nerve impulses, initiating voluntary movement, memory, thought processes, and logical reasoning.” according to MedicaLook. The cerebrum also controls emotional and instinctual responses.

-Also controls language and reasoning skills

The cerebellum: This is the second largest part of the brain and it is located below the cerebrum. Balance and coordination are this area’s main function. “Disorders related to the damage of the cerebellum often result in ataxia (problems with coordination) and dysarthria (unclear speech resulting from problems controlling the muscles used in speaking),” Mind Disorders said.

-Controls movement and balance

Limbic system: This system is the center for emotional thinking and contains the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, amygdala and hippocampus.

The hypothalamus regulates hunger, thirst and anger in the body, among others.

The amygdala plays another role. “The amygdalas are two almond-shaped masses of neurons on either side of the thalamus at the lower end of the hippocampus. When it is stimulated electrically, animals respond with aggression. And if the amygdala is removed, animals get very tame and no longer respond to things that would have caused rage before,”

The hippocampus is all about building memories. This is the place where memories are stored, both in the short-term and the long-term.

The pituitary gland is about as small as a pea and is located at the brain’s base. The gland has three lobes: anterior, intermediate and posterior. “Each lobe of the pituitary gland produces certain hormones,” the University of Maryland Medical Center Endocrinology Health Guide said. For example, in the intermediate lobe, the melanocyte-stimulating hormone controls skin pigmentation.

Also controls:

-Body Temperature

-Sleep patterns


The Brain Stem: The brain stem is another crucial area. “The brain stem plays a vital role in basic attention, arousal and consciousness. All information to and from our body passes through the brain stem on the way to or from the brain. Like the frontal and temporal lobes, the brain stem is located in an area near bony protrusions making it vulnerable to damage during trauma,” the Centre for Neuro Skills said.

Also controls:

-Breathing/ heart rate

So the next time you walk, talk or write, keep in mind, those are all skills directly from your brain. It may not seem like it is all that important to think about your senses, but when you think of the big picture and how nearly every movement you make has to do with the functioning of your brain, you can start to see how much of an impact each of the four main structure’s has on your day to day living.


Sources : Our Brain !

Brain Functions: How They Work

Click to access NYT_Darwin_Op-ed_Feb09.pdf

Vilayanur S. Ramachandran


Vilayanur Subramanian “Rama” Ramachandran (born 1951)
is a neuroscientist best known for his work in the fields of behavioral neurology and psychophysics.
He is the Director of the Center for Brain and Cognition, and is currently a Professor in the Department of Psychology and the Neurosciences Graduate Program at the University of California, San Diego.

Ramachandran is best known for his experiments in behavioral neurology which, despite their apparent simplicity, have generated many new ideas about the workings of the brain. He has been called “The Marco Polo of neuroscience” by Richard Dawkins and “the modern Paul Broca” by Eric Kandel.

In 1997 Newsweek magazine named him a member of “The Century Club”, one of the “hundred most prominent people to watch” in the 21st century and in 2011 Time listed him as one of “the most influential people in the world” on the “Time 100” list

Emerging Mind !

Vilayanur Subramanian Ramachandran (in accordance with Indian family name traditions, his family name, Vilayanur, is placed first) was born in 1951 in Tamil Nadu, India.
His father, Vilayanur Subramanian, was a UN diplomat, and as a consequence, Ramachandran spent much of his youth moving among several different posts in India and other parts of Asia.
Ramachandran is the grandson of Sir Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer, Advocate General of Madras and co-architect of the Constitution of India.
He is married to Diane Rogers-Ramachandran and they have two boys, Mani and Jaya.
Ramachandran has studied neurological syndromes to investigate neural mechanisms underlying human mental function. Ramachandran is best known for his work on syndromes such as phantom limbs, body integrity identity disorder, and Capgras delusion. His research has also contributed to the understanding of synesthesia.
An Observer into Fathoms

More recently his work has focused on the theoretical implications of mirror neurons and the cause of autism. In addition, Ramachandran is known for the invention of the mirror box. He has published over 180 papers in scientific journals. Twenty of these have appeared in Nature, and others have appeared in Science, Nature Neuroscience, Perception and Vision Research. Ramachandran is a member of the editorial board of Medical Hypotheses (Elsevier) and has published 15 articles there.

Ramachandran’s work in behavioral neurology has been widely reported by the media. He has appeared in numerous Channel 4 and PBS documentaries. He has also been featured by the BBC, the Science Channel, Newsweek, Radio Lab, and This American Life, TED Talks, and Charlie Rose. In the episode “The Tyrant” of the television show House, M.D., Dr. House cures phantom limb pain using a mirror box.

He is author of Phantoms in the Brain which formed the basis for a two part series on BBC Channel 4 TV (UK) and a 1-hour PBS special in the USA. He is the editor of the Encyclopedia of the Human Brain (2002), and is co-author of the bi-monthly “Illusions” column in Scientific American Mind.

Mind - A whirlpool !

His Main Research Domains :
1. Human vision
human visual perception using psychophysical methods to draw clear inferences about the brain mechanisms underlying visual processing.
2. Phantom limbs
He theorized that the body image maps in the somatosensory cortex are re-mapped after the amputation of a limb.
3.Mirror visual feedback
4. Capgras delusion
5. Synesthesia
6.Mirror neurons
7. Body integrity identity disorder
Books by Ramachandran
* Phantoms in the Brain : Probing the Mysteries of the Human Mind, coauthor Sandra Blakeslee, 1998, ISBN 0-688-17217-2
* The Encyclopedia of the Human Brain (editor-in-chief) ISBN 0-12-227210-2
* The Emerging Mind, 2003, ISBN 1-86197-303-9
* A Brief Tour of Human Consciousness: From Impostor Poodles to Purple Numbers, 2005, ISBN 0-13-187278-8 (paperback edition)
* The Tell-Tale Brain: A Neuroscientist’s Quest for What Makes Us Human, 2010, ISBN 978-0-393-07782-7
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