Nokia The Reliable Connecting

The History of Nokia – The roots of Nokia go back to the year 1865 with the establishment of a forest industry enterprise. The roots of Nokia go back to the year 1865 with the establishment of a forest industry enterprise in South-Western Finland by mining engineer Fredrik Idestam. Elsewhere, the year 1898 witnessed the foundation of Finnish Rubber Works Ltd, and in 1912 Finnish Cable Works began operations. Gradually, the ownership of these two companies and Nokia began to shift into hands of just a few owners.

nokiaFinally in 1967 the three companies were merged to form Nokia Corporation. At the beginning of the 1980s, Nokia strengthened its position in the telecommunications and consumer electronics markets through the acquisitions of Mobira, Salora, Televa and Luxor of Sweden. In 1987, Nokia acquired the consumer electronics operations and part of the component business of the German Standard Elektrik Lorenz, as well as the French consumer electronics company Oceanic. In 1987, Nokia also purchased the Swiss cable machinery company Maillefer.

In the late 1980s, Nokia became the largest Scandinavian information technology company through the acquisition of Ericsson’s data systems division. In 1989, Nokia conducted a significant expansion of its cable industry into Continental Europe by acquiring the Dutch cable company NKF.

Since the beginning of the 1990’s, Nokia has concentrated on its core business, telecommunications, by divesting its information technology and basic industry operations.

Year 2005

The Nokia 6630 imaging smartphone has as the first device in the world achieved global GCF 3G WDCMA Certification. The certification was achieved based on the requirements defined by Global Certification Forum (GCF), an independent industry body which provides network compliancy requirements and testing for GSM/WCDMA mobile devices.

SBS Finland’s Kiss FM became the first radio station in the world to begin Visual Radio broadcasts. This unique new concept developed by Nokia offers the listeners the possibility to give feedback and to participate in programs easier than ever before. Nokia introduced a new product for secure mobile contactless payments and ticketing.

The world’s first Near Field Communications (NFC) product for payment and ticketing will be an enhanced version of the already announced Nokia NFC shell for Nokia 3220 phone.
Year 2004

Using Nokia’s CDMA Dual-Stack handset, Nokia demonstrated the industry’s first Mobile IPv6 call at the 3G World Congress Convention and Exhibition in November. The demonstration highlighted real-time streaming video with seamless handoff between two CDMA access networks using Mobile IPv6.

Nokia announced the Nokia NFC (Near Field Communication) shell, the latest step in the development of innovative products for mobile communications, in November. With the Nokia NFC shell on their phone, consumers will be able to easily access a variety of services and conveniently exchange information with a simple touch gesture utilizing NFC technology. In October, Nokia and TeliaSonera Finland successfully conducted the world’s first EDGE-WCDMA 3G packet data handover in a commercial network.

Achieving a first for the Asia-Pacific region, Nokia, MediaCorp Technologies, M1 and the Media Development Authority of Singapore jointly showcased a live end-to-end mobile phone TV broadcast over a DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcast – Handheld) network at the Nokia Connection event in Singapore.

Nokia and Texas Instruments Incorporated introduced the first pre-integrated and validated Series 60 Reference Implementation based on TI’s OMAP(TM) processor-powered reference design in February. The Reference Implementation is available immediately to Series 60 licensees.
Year 2003

Nokia announced that the world’s first cdma2000? 1xEV-DV high-speed packet data phone call was completed at Nokia’s CDMA product creation center in San Diego. The call, achieving a peak data rate of 3.09 Mbps, was made between a test set based on a commercially available Nokia 2285 handset upgraded with a Nokia 1xEV-DV chipset and a Racal Instruments, Wireless Solutions Group, 1xEV-DV basestation emulator. This chipset is the world’s first to support complete 1xEV-DV Release C functionality.
Year 2002

Nokia succesfully made the first 3G WCDMA packet data calls between its commercial network infrastructure and terminals in its laboratories in Finland. The Nokia 3G WCDMA network and terminal used were based on the commercial standard level known as 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) Release 99 June 2001 version. This was the first time that packet data has been transmitted end-to-end on a commercial system based on the above mentioned commercial standard.
Year 2001

Nokia introduces the industry first multimedia messaging solution, the Nokia Artuse (TM) MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service) Center, a high-capacity platform for the next wave of mobile messaging. The solution enables operators to introduce multimedia messaging services combining new rich content, such as audio and video clips, photographs and images with the traditional text messaging. Nokia and the Finnish operator Sonera conducted the world’s first Wireless LAN roaming based on GSM technology. Sonera is making use of Nokia technology that allows mobile operators to offer broadband wireless Internet services in Wireless LAN access zones.
Year 2000

Nokia introduced the world’s first IPv6-enabled end-to-end GPRS network. Operators can use Nokia GPRS networks to provide their customers with new types of services that bring benefits offered by IPv6, such as global reachability and end-to-end security.

Nokia introduced the world’s first TETRA WAP browser which brings powerful WAP applications to TETRA professional mobile radio networks. WAP over TETRA provides a new method of data communication for professionals. It enables real-time direct access to various customer and technical databases in only a few seconds. Nokia has combined the versatility of WAP with the power of TETRA to introduce the world’s first WAP services for digital professional mobile radio users. The new WAP services have been developed in co-operation with Finnish companies Helsinki Energy and Tekla Corporation.

Nokia and Sonera have completed tests that bring roaming capabilities for IP traffic between GPRS networks for the first time in the world. Nokia and Scandinavian Airlines Systems announced a partnership to bring Nokia mobile phones to the selection of goods sold on all international SAS flights. This is the first time mobile phones will be sold on airplanes.

Nokia launched the Nokia LiveSite platform, the world’s first WCDMA implementation which is compatible with the latest 3GPP standards for third generation networks.

Nokia successfully carried out the world’s first WAP service over a trial WCDMA system. The tests were completed in Beijing, China, where Chinese language WAP services were transmitted via the WCDMA system and radio network.

Nokia, a founding member of the SyncML initiative, announced that it had successfully demonstrated the world’s first wireless Internet synchronization using the SyncL protocol. Nokia is the first vendor in the world to bring full mobile IP packet data functionalities into TETRA networks. Nokia TETRA IP significantly enhances access to WAP services and more efficient WAP service development is possible with new TETRA IP functionalities.

Nokia announces world’s first GPRS roaming between M1 Singapore and Cable and Wireless HKT Mobile Services, Hong Kong. This is the first announcement of its kind in the world for GPRS inter-operator roaming.
Year 1999

Nokia introduced the world’s first high-speed data terminal for wireless networks: the Nokia Card Phone 2.0 brings about a four-fold increase in data transmission speed. Nokia completed the world’s first WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) phone call through a public switched telephone network.

Nokia announced the world’s first media phone that is based on the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) in Mobile Media Mode. The Nokia 7110 dual band GSM 900/1800 media phone has been designed to enable easy access to Internet content from a mobile phone.
Year 1998

Nokia delivered world’s first ETSI standard ADSL and IP network to Telecom New Zealand, thereby marking the start of commercial delivery of broadband data services using the ADSL network.

The Nokia 9110 Communicator, the first hand-held mobile device supporting wireless imagining. The Nokia 5100 series, the first mobile phones with user-changeable covers.

The world’s smallest NMT 450 phone, the Nokia 650, sets a new benchmark for NMT 450 technology. As a special additional feature and first in the market, the Nokia 650 has a built-in FM radio. The Nokia LPS-1 loopset, an easy to use device for smooth interaction between a hearing aid and a digital mobile phone. It the first product of its kind in the world.

A revolutionary new solution, the Nokia GSM Intranet Office, giving employees total mobility in the workplace via the company intranet. The world’s first GSM Intranet Office combining GSM with office IP telephony.

The Nokia Intelligent Frequency Hopping (IFH) solution, part of the Nokia Soft Capacity concept, the first solution of its kind in today’s GSM markets

The world’s first live High-Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD) network.
Year 1997

The world’s first four TETRA networks were delivered by Nokia. A new handset for the NMT 450 standard, the Nokia 540, which is the world’s first NMT phone with Navi Key.

The next generation GSM product family, the Nokia 6100 series. New standards for operating times and a set of innovative industry-first features, including audio quality and an entirely new Profile function which enables users to adjust the phone settings according to various situations.

Next generation half-rate handportable for the digital PDC standard in Japan. With this introduction, Nokia is the first company to demonstrate an entirely new, innovative feature for PDC handsets, which enables calling by voice activation.

The world’s first GSM dual band base station, the Nokia GSM 900/1800 Dual Band BTS. This provides the possibility to integrate GSM 1800 transceivers (TRXs) into an existing GSM 900 Base station (BTS).

The first call on the Helsinki City Energy Company’s digital TETRA network was made. The network, called officially HelenNet by Helsinki City Energy Company, is the world’s first network taken into operative use, according to the TETRA standard.

The Nokia 3810, the first mobile phone specially designed for Asian consumers.First-ever interactive telematic wireless health care tool for supporting the treatment of chronic diseases, e.g., diabetes.

By introducing a new WLL solution, Easyway Access, Nokia became the first supplier on the market to link GSM radio access to a wireline local exchange. The world’s first digital satellite receiver with CommoTn Interface, the DVB 9600 S. The first manufacturer to provide a complete Smart Messaging solution, a new direct Internet access service technology specially designed for mobile phone users, to network operators and service providers.

Nokia launched its Mediamaster DVB 9200S Free-To-Air, and was the first manufacturer to launch a digital satellite receiver in the UK. A new GSM handportable, the Nokia 3110, with the Navi-Key menu system that allows fast, one-button access to the functions of the phone. A new mobile phone offering a new innovative power management solution, the Nokia 1611 with a unique option, the solar cell battery.
Year 1996

he first digital multimedia terminal in the world, the Nokia Mediamaster. The Nokia 8100 product family, the first with an innovative, ergonomically comfortable design. Chinese character short messaging service and Chinese user interface were launched in the Nokia 8110 mobile phone. Nokia was the first manufacturer to offer both simplified and traditional character sets in the same phone. The Nokia 2160, the first available dual mode AMPS/TDMA phone. The Nokia 9000 Communicator, the world’s first all-in-one mobile communications tool introduced at the CeBIT exhibition.
Year 1995

The world’s first integrated wireless payphone. The new joint venture, Beijing Nokia Mobile Telecommunications Ltd., was established: the first factory to manufacture large scale GSM systems and equipment in China. Nokia PrimeSite, the world’s smallest base station for GSM/DCS cellular mobile networks.
Year 1994

The first offical GSM call in the People4s Republic of China made on a Nokia phone on Beijing TA4s network, supplied by Nokia. The first European manufacturer to start selling mobile phones in Japan. The world’s first Data Communications Server (DaCS), providing fully digital, fast access to corporate LANs. The world’s first digital cellular data products, including the Nokia PC Card and the Nokia Cellular Data Card. Inmarsat made the world’s first satellite telephone call with Nokia’s pocket-size GSM handset. The first manufacturer to launch series of handportable phones for all digital standards (GSM, TDMA, PCN, Japan Digital). The Nokia 2100 was the world’s smallest and lightest family of digital products.
Year 1993

The first Personal Communications Network based on GSM 1800 standard delivered by Nokia. The world’s first SMSC (Short Message Service Centre) taken into commercial use in Europolitan’s Nokia network. The world’s first credit card size cellular modem card developed with AT&T Paradyne.
Year 1992

The Nokia 1011, the first digital handportable phone for GSM networks. The Nokia 100 series, the first family of handportale phones for all analog networks.
Year 1991

The first manufacturer to have a large-scale production-ready GSM phone. The world’s first genuine GSM call made using Radiolinja’s network, supplied by Nokia.
Year 1990

The world’s first Radio Data System (RDS) and Mobile Search (MBS) text pagers.
Year 1989

The world’s first Actionet trunking mobile radio network was brought into operation. The world’s first fast-poll 14,400 bps (bits-per-second) modem.
Year 1988

The world’s first ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) exchange conforming to CCITT standards, manufactured by Nokia, was brought into use in Finland.
Year 1987

The world’s first NMT handportable, the Nokia Cityman.
Year 1984

The world’s first portable NMT car telephone, the Nokia Talkman.
Year 1982

Europe’s first digital telephone exchange, the DX 200.
Year 1981

The world’s first international cellular mobile telephone network NMT opened in Scandinavia with Nokia introducing the first car phones for the network.
Year 1969

Nokia introduced the world’s first 30-channel PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) transmission equipment conforming to the standards of CCITT (Consultative Committee on International Telegraphy and Telephony).

Technology Hazards – Arguments 1 Mobile Phones & Blue Tooth

!!

Mobile Phones & Blue Tooth

The cellular phone has to emit radiofrequency energy at levels high enough to reach base stations (antenna towers) tens of kilometers away.

Since the energy is emitted as a microwave … there are concerns about the safety of this technology.

There are reports from cell studies as well as animal studies that are most worrying.

Among other effects the double DNA breakage is among the fundamental och disturbing findings.

This may indicate that there may be a significant risk of developing cancer tumours, foremost brain tumours in the user of cellular (mobile) phones.

The design of the cellular phones casing, electronic and foremost the antenna construction gives widely different near and far fields around the phone.

It is at present time not completely clear what parameters of the field gives biological effects, however as an intermediate cautionary step one can use the simple measure of absorbed radiated energy into the tissue of the head.

This is given as a SAR – Specific Absorption Ratio and is measured in watts per kilogram. This may not be a true measure of the biological hazard from the phone but may be used as an indication of the energy recieved into the head. See it as prudent avoidance.

Niels Kuster, a radiation expert at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, has developed a new measurement technique to measure cell-phone EMR towards the user’s head. He measured 16 popular cell phone models, and published the results in the Swiss Consumer Report magazine. The table below was initiated based upon data from his study:

(see site for ratings – http://www.bemi.se/founder/clips/cellularSAR.html )

SAR is given as Cenelec value for average EMR exposure of user’s head, measured in Watt per kg of user’s body weight. (A low number means less radiated energy into the users head).

The fact that Ericsson SH888 is given two different SAR values
reflects the uncertainty how SAR should be measured.

The same radiation will give different SAR values
depending on calculation or measurement method,
whether the ear is a lossy one or just a distancer,
and if the SAR is calculated over 1 g, 10 g or 1 kg of tissue
(and also the shape that region is given, eg. a cube).

Note that Star Tac exists in various models, some have low SAR and some don?t. Also note that despite the low SAR for Star Tac many people complain of headaches or other sympthoms when using those
(just another indication that SAR may NOT be the best way of describing health effects from cellular phones).
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"blue Tooth"

A bluetooth works on frequentie 2.45 Ghz, Gsm on 800-1900 Mhz, FM radio signals on 80-108 Mhz. But still the frequentie doesn’t affect you, if it’s 50 Mhz or 2,5 Ghz, it doesn’t matter, our own sun transmits more signal that this…
It’s the amount of RF energy that you expose that makes if a phone/headset ‘dangerous’ (called SAR rating. it’s allread ‘proven’ that analogue phone can cause cancer, but also transmit a lot of SAR.
For GSM the limit has being set on SAR 1.6 W/kg. Some cell phones, like the Nokia 6230 has only got 0.59 W/kg while the 3310 has got 0.96 W/kg.
More extreme cases:
Samsung P400 1.18 W/kg and the Motorola V3688 only 0.02 W/kg…

Mobile phones cause ‘five-fold increase in brain cancer risk’

what's behind the veil..?

People who started using mobile as teenagers and have been doing so for more than a decade are at a five-fold risk of developing a common type of brain cancer, new evidence indicates.

By Stephen Adams, Medical Correspondent,.telegraph.co.uk
Campaigners said the research, published in the International Journal of Oncology, was further evidence of the need to educate children of the potential dangers of talking on mobile phones.

Researchers from the University Hospital of Örebro and Umeå University examined the mobile and cordless phone use of more than 1,200 Swedes, who were diagnosed with malignant brain cancer between 1997 and 2003.

Of those, the 905 who were still alive were interviewed about their phone usage. For the remaining 346 who had died., researchers asked their relatives about their loved-ones’ telephone habits.

They then compared this to phone use information on almost 2,500 ‘controls’ who were either living and had no brain cancer, or had died of other causes. Each ‘case’ and each ‘control’ was matched for age, sex and social class.
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sluggish carriers

The 2G mobile network uses a frequency of 1.8 GHz the 3G 2.1GHz
and the cordless landline 1.88 GHz, WiFI 2.45 GHz and microwave ovens 2.45GHz (but only when they are on)
So cordless landlines operate at a very similar microwave frequency to mobiles. Also the data is carried as a modulation which is like a low frequency ‘pulse’. This is what makes the radiation so biologically active as shown in numerous lab experiments.
You can easily rent or buy monitoring equipment and you can see for yourself that the radiation emitted from a cordless landline when on a call is the same order of magnitude as from a mobile phone. Similar amounts of radiation being pumped into your brain and face. Brain tumours/mouth/eye cancers caused by cordless phones and mobile phones are on the same side of the head as you hold the phone.

beauty rarely meets quality

There is now an infinite number of `peer reviewed’ International `scientific’ research available on the web’
And while checking out these `facts’ maybe you can also check out how many millions the mobile phone industry put into cancer research. It is very interesting that, as soon as we get the `scientific’ evidence’ that pulsed microwaves could cause cancer, we immediately have a denial published by the cancer `industry’. Follow the money!
Our
brain is the most complex and unknown part of the human body, yet the the
neuroscience has developed a lot in the past decades, and has been able to help the human being to have a knowledge of what’s inside. The discovery of the neuroplasticity, the
ability of the brain to create and develop neurons and connections to decrease
the natural cognitive decline and improve the brain capacity, has also been
breakthrough. It created a new form of training – the brain training programs.
When scientifically validated, these programs may change your life for the better.
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Mobile phones ‘possibly carcinogenic’ say World Health Organisation experts

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/healthnews/8548725/Mobile-phones-possibly-carcinogenic-say-World-Health-Organisation-experts.html
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Mobile phones may increase the risk of developing brain cancer, an influential health organisation has said admitted for the first time.

whither...?

Martin Beckford

By Martin Beckford, Health Correspondent
The International Agency for Research on Cancer, part of the World Health Organisation, has classified the radiation emitted by handsets as “possibly carcinogenic” although it did not find evidence of a clear link.

Its decision – putting mobiles in the same risk category as lead, the pesticide DDT and petrol exhausts – will put governments under pressure to update their advice to the public on the potential dangers of talking on mobiles for long periods of time.

Christopher Wild, the director of IARC, said that while more research is carried out “it is important to take pragmatic measures to reduce exposure such as hands-free devices or texting”.

It has long been known that the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones are absorbed by the body, much of it by the head when the handset is held to the ear.

But research into the possible health consequences of frequent mobile use has proved inconclusive because the technology has only been widely used for a few years while it can take decades for tumours to develop.
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Last year a landmark IARC study, known as Interphone, disclosed that making calls for more than half an hour a day over 10 years could increase users’ risk of developing gliomas – a type of tumor that starts in the brain or spine – by 40 per cent.

Over the past eight days, a working group of 31 scientists from 14 countries reviewed the Interphone data and other studies, including a Swedish report that also found evidence of increased brain tumour risk among mobile users.

They concluded that there was “limited” evidence that wireless phones are linked to brain cancer – meaning that it could be down to chance rather than causation – and “inadequate” proof that mobiles cause other types of cancer.

Dr Jonathan Samet, chairman of the group, admitted the evidence is “still accumulating” but insisted: “The conclusion means that there could be some risk, and therefore we need to keep a close watch for a link between cell phones and cancer risk”.

By classifying mobiles as “possibly carcinogenic”, the IARC has placed them alongside DDT, chloroform, coffee, lead and working as a firefighter in a list of more than 900 agents it has analysed. However this is only the third-highest rating, below “carcinogenic to humans”, which includes cigarettes, and “probably carcinogenic”, which includes diesel exhausts and creosote.

But with an estimated 5 billion mobile phones in the world, health agencies are likely to act on the IARC’s warning, which will now be discussed by the World Health Organisation.

As The Daily Telegraph disclosed in March, the Department of Health in England recently updated its advice to the public by saying that sending text messages or using hands-free kits can reduce exposure to radiation, by keeping the handset away from the head.

It is also recommended that children only use mobiles when strictly necessary, as they are at greater risk of absorbing radiation.

Following the IARC’s announcement, experts pointed out that it did not prove mobiles cause cancer, and that there was still little long-term research on the subject.

Ed Yong, head of health information at Cancer Research UK, said: “The risk of brain cancer is similar in people who use mobile phones compared to those who don’t, and rates of this cancer have not gone up in recent years despite a dramatic rise in phone use during the 1980s.

“However, not enough is known to totally rule out a risk, and there has been very little research on the long-term effects of using phones.”

Prof Malcolm Sperrin, Director of Medical Physics & Clinical Engineering at Royal Berkshire Hospital, said the categorization was justified but added: “It should also be stated that electromagnetic field exposure is not new – witness the regular usage of radio and other waves for many decades with no convincing health detriment at low powers. The social and technological benefits also need to be emphasised.”

John Cooke, Executive Director of the Mobile Operators Association, said: “It is important to note that IARC has not established a direct link between mobile phone use and cancer. It has, however, concluded that there is the possibility of a hazard. Whether or not this represents a risk requires further scientific investigation.”

think and use

mobile Phones

Mobiles Safe? Hold the Phone
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The use of mobile phones over a long period of time can raise the risk of brain tumors, according to a Swedish study released on Friday, contradicting the conclusions of other researchers.

Last year, the Dutch Health Council, in an overview of research from around the world, found no evidence that radiation from mobile phones and TV towers was harmful. A four-year British survey in January also showed no link between regular, long-term use of cell phones and the most common type of tumor.

But researchers at the Swedish National Institute for Working Life looked at mobile phone use of 2,200 cancer patients and an equal number of healthy control cases.

Of the cancer patients, aged between 20 and 80, 905 had a malignant brain tumor and about a tenth of them were also heavy users of mobile phones.

“Of these 905 cases, 85 were so-called high users of mobile phones, that is they began early to use mobile and/or wireless telephones and used them a lot,” said the authors of the study in a statement issued by the Institute.

Published in the International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, the study defines heavy use as 2,000 plus hours, which “corresponds to 10 years’ use in the work place for one hour per day.”

Early use was defined as having begun to use a mobile phone before the age of 20.

There was also shown to be a marked increase in the risk of tumor on the side of the head where the telephone was generally used, said the study, which took into account factors such as smoking habits, working history and exposure to other agents.

Kjell Mild, who led the study, said the figures meant that heavy users of mobile phones had a 240 percent increased risk of a malignant tumor on the side of the head the phone is used.

“The way to get the risk down is to use handsfree,” he said.

He said his study was the biggest yet to look at long-term users of the wireless phone, which has been around in Sweden in a portable form since 1984, longer than in many other countries.