Thirumanthiram is the tenth Thirumurai in the Tamil Saivaite Panniru Thirumurai. It has been divided into nine sections called Tantras, containing the quintessence of the Saiva Agamas. Sekkizhar, the author of Periyapuranam, designated this Tamil classic as “Tamizh Moovaayiram” since it possesses 3000 poems each of which has unique metrical structure, each line consisting of 11 or 12 syllables, depending upon the initial syllable.
It is the earliest exposition of Saiva Agamas in Tamil, discussing in detail the four related steps of spiritual progress viz.,
Tirumoolar, the author of the text, has been hailed as one of the 63 Nayanmars. He was a great mystic and Yogi. For a very long period he was absorbed in meditation and contemplation beneath the shade of a Bodhi tree at Tiruvavaduthurai and delivered the poems which are collectively called the Tirumandiram i.e. the divine incantations. Historically, the author belonged to 500 A.D., long before the period of the Thevaram trio.
Human beings are affected by the moon. Women especially are affected by the moon and their menstrual cycle is intimately linked to this celestial body.
regulates your menstrual cycle,
can trigger ovulation and fertile times,
affects your emotions and
affects the way people behave and view the world.
Women are connected to the moon by our blood, our hormones and our souls.
The first step in claiming the gifts of our menstrual cycle is to become re-acqainted with Mother Moon. Putting aside all the scientific phenomena of the way the Moon affects the earths tides, weather, animals, fluids and moods, symbolically the Moon has a lot to teach us.
In myth the Moon is a primary female archetype travelling the great round of Birth, Maturation, Death and Rebirth each month. This is a primal fundamental cycle of the universe of which every single living thing participates.
We all are born, we grow, mature and we die .
Humans do it, animals do it, plants do it and even love affairs, business ventures and economies do it. It is only our modern culture with its focus on youth and never ending productivity that attempts to deny this basic cycle of life. Living in this culture it is easy to forget that we are fundamentally cyclic creatures.
Most of us have been taught to believe that being a cyclical creature is a primitive or inferior affair. We believe that we will be less productive, less useful or just plain stupid if we allow ourselves to follow the rhythm of our cycles.
However, there is much grace, flow and harmony to be achieved through living in a cyclic manner. Being able to recognise and use the most appropriate energy that is available to you at any given moment is in fact a far more efficient use of time and energy.
Just like the Moon’s journey through the phases, a woman’s menstrual cycle can also be divided up into easily understood and clearly experienced phases. These phases take on archetypal (or universally recognised) feminine energies as set out in the following image.
Each month a woman will experience changes in the way she perceives herself and her world in accordance to where she is in her menstrual cycle.
The moon’s cycle also adds another subtle tone to her monthly experience, increasing or decreasing the intensity of the energies depending upon where the two cycles overlap.
For example if a woman is ovulating with the Full Moon, this mode of cycling gives a woman the best chance of physical fertility, great for trying to conceive children, as the full moon accentuates the time of Ovulation.
When a woman bleeds with the full moon, this mode of cycling enhances inner expression, intuition and the development of the inner, spiritual life.
As women become more aware of the different phases and how they experience them, they find it much easier to recognise and use the phase they are at and will also experience a far greater acceptance of their bodies, their menstrual cycle and their feminine nature.
The Female Energy Cycle
The menstrual cycle is a complex affair and can be viewed from many perpectives.
Physically or biologically where the hormones produce real changes in the female body throughout the menstrual month so that women can have babies.
Lunar or moon based perspective, where the influence of the moon affects female fertility and emotional behaviour.
Spiritually where the model of archetypes encompassed in the Female Energy Cycle provides a metaphor or description of behaviour or experiences common to most women.
So far, throughout this website we have looked the way your menstrual cycle is affected by your hormones and the moon.
Just as the moon waxes and wanes throughout the month so do you. You experience different moods, desires and aspects of yourself (and being female) depending upon where you are in your menstrual cycle.
You are influenced emotionally, mentally and spiritually by an invisible energy system of personalities. I have called this invisible energy system the Female Energy Cycle.
The Female Energy Cycle contains a pattern or blueprint of feminine behaviour. And just like the lunar cycle there is a distinct order, system, ebb and flow to the way these feminine archetypes appear within the Female Energy Cycle.
This temple, though in the name of Bhagavaan Shri Krishna , is dwelled by Shri Devi – “Painkanni “. Hence the temple is also famous as “Painkannikkavu “.
Other Dieties who adorn the divine atmosphere are Bhadra Kaali and Dharma Shaasta
The temple has another pecularity of the “Prathishta “(installation )of Shri Bhadra Kaali was done by a Woman.
Rather she is a little girl studying in High School at Irinjaalakkuda.
Being the daughter of Temple Priest and Tantri, Brahma Shri Tarananellur Padmanabhan Namboothiri ppad ,
“Jyotsna” the First Woman Tantri in Kerala is adament in the Rituals and committed to the Temple Tamera and Tantrik Karma.
Today is the auspicious day of Installation ceremony.
To invoke and distribute Divine Power to the well Being of the society, “Shri Chakra Pooja ” ( Sri Yantra ) is conducted in the heridatery padhathi of ancient Tantri Brahmin family – Tarananellur Mana.
The History of Tarananellur traces back to the age of Sage Parashu Raam who initiated the ancestors to Sri Vidya Tantra.
In the Dattatreya Upanishad which is a part of the Atharva Veda, Shri Guru Dattatreya is described as being able to appear in the form of a child, madman, or demon in order to help his devotees achieve moksha, liberation from the bonds of worldly existence.
In the Datta Sampradaya the first avatar is Shripad Shri Vallabh and the second is Narasimha Saraswati. Akkalkot Swami Samarth, Shri Vasudevanand Saraswati (Tembe Swami, Sawantwadi)) Manik Prabhu, Krishna Saraswati, Shirdi Sai Baba (Shirdi, Maharashtra), Gajanan Maharaj (Shegaon) and Pujya Sri Ganapathi Sachchidananda Swamiji are also considered as avatars of Dattatreya.
The Upanishads Avadhutopanishad and Jaabaaldarshanopanishad mention that this philosophy was put forward by Dattatreya.
According to the International Nath Order of the Nath Sampradaya, the “Avadhuta Gita is a distillation of the sublime realization sung by Dattatreya and transcribed by two of his disciples, Swami and Kartika.” Swami Vivekananda (1863–1902) held it in high esteem. Originally a work of seven chapters, a spurious and misogynistic eighth chapter may be a later attempt to append sexual morality to the Natha tradition by a conservative ascetic. Some of the ideas in this Gita are however common to both Shaivite, and Buddhist Tantras and Vaishnava Agamas.
Abhayananda, S., Dattatreya’s Song of the Avadhut. ATMA Books (Olympia, Wash), 2000. ISBN 8170306752.
Hariprasad Shivprasad Joshi (1965). Origin and Development of Dattātreya Worship in India . The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda.
Harper, Katherine Anne; Brown, Robert L. (2002). The Roots of Tantra. New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 9780791453056.
Kambhampati, Parvathi Kumar (2000). Sri Dattatreya (1st ed.). Visakhapatnam: Dhanishta.
Rigopoulos, Antonio (1998). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara. New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-3696-9.
Subramanian K. N., Wisdom of Sri Dattatreya. Sura Books, 2006. ISBN 8174783903.
Places of Foot Prints:
Girnar (also known as “Girnar Hill”) is a collection of mountains in the Junagadh District of Gujarat, India, situated near Junagadh at a distance of 327 km from Ahmedabad. It is a holy place and an important pilgrimage for both Hindus and Jains. There are a number of temples located here. Amidst the lush green Gir Forest, the mountain range serves as the hub of religious activity. Apart from this, there is a mosque attracting many Muslim pilgrims to the place. This has made Girnar a perfect example of unity in diversity in India.
Ganagapura (Kannada ಗಾಣಗಾಪುರ, sometimes called Deval Ganagapur) is a village in Karnataka, India. It is located in the Afzalpur taluk of Gulbarga district in Karnataka.
The village is noted for its temple to Dattatreya, who is said to have attained realization here on the banks of the river Bhima
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Osho on Making Sex as Meditation
Question: My girlfriend told me I am a little boring, not very juicy, very Dependent and a victim. Then I felt very guilty and depressed and Utterly unworthy. I began to feel inside me a big no: towards Existence, life, love, you. Meanwhile I observed in me this Destructive energy and I felt that I somehow enjoyed it! Beloved Master, is it possible to use this energy in some creative Way?
Your girlfriend is very compassionate, because each man finally becomes very boring not a little boring. Do you realize the fact that what you call love is a repetition, the same stupid gymnastics again and again? And in this whole stupid game the man is the loser. He is dissipating his energy, perspiring, huffing, puffing, and the girl keeps her eyes closed, thinking, “It is a question only of two or three minutes and this nightmare will be finished.”
People are so non-inventive that they take it for granted that going through the same actions is making them more interesting. That’s why I say your girlfriend is very compassionate — she only told you that you are a little boring. I say to you, you are utterly boring. When the Christian missionaries came to this country, people discovered that they knew only one posture of making love — the woman underneath and those ugly beasts on top of the delicate woman. In India that posture is called the missionary posture.
India is an ancient land and the birth place of many sciences, particularly sexology. A book of tremendous importance, by Vatsyayana, has been in existence for five thousand years. The name of the book is Kamasutras, hints for making love. And it comes from a man of deep meditation — he has created eighty-four postures for lovemaking. Naturally the love posture should change; otherwise you are bound to be boring.
Vatsyayana recognizes the fact that the same love posture creates boredom, a feeling of utter stupidity, because you are always doing the same thing. He invented eighty-four postures to make the love life of couples a little interesting. Nobody in the whole world has written a book of the caliber of Kamasutras. But it could only have come from a man of immense clarity, of deep meditativeness. What is your lovemaking? If you look at your lovemaking, you yourself will feel that it is all boring.
And particularly for the woman it is more boring, because the man is finished in two or three minutes and the woman has not even started. And all around the world, cultures have enforced in the minds of women that they are not supposed even to enjoy or move or be playful — that is called `dirty’; prostitutes do it, not ladies. Ladies have to lie down almost dead and let that old guy do whatsoever he wants to do; it is nothing new, there is nothing new even to see.
You should not take it as a personal disrespect. Your girlfriend is telling you something really sincere and honest. Have you given her orgasmic joy? Or have you only used her to throw out your sexual energy? Have you reduced her into a commodity? She has been conditioned to accept it, but even this accepting cannot be joyful. You make love on the same bed where you fight every day. In fact fighting is the preface: throwing pillows, shouting at each other, arguing about everything and then, feeling tired, some negotiation is needed.
Your love is only a negotiation. If you are a man of aesthetic sensibility, your love chamber should be a sacred place, because it is in that love chamber that life is born. It should have beautiful flowers, incense, fragrance; you should enter into it with deep respect. And love should not be just an abrupt thing — grab the woman. This hit-and-run affair is not love. Love should have a preface of beautiful music, of dancing together, of meditating together.
And love should not be a mind thing — that you are continuously thinking of how to make love and then go to sleep. Love should be a deeper involvement of your whole being, and it should not be projected by the mind, but should come out spontaneously. Beautiful music, fragrance, you are dancing hand in hand, you have again become small children playing with flowers… If spontaneously love happens in this sacred atmosphere it will have a different quality.
You should understand that the woman is capable of multiple orgasms, because she does not lose any energy. Man is capable of only one orgasm and he loses energy, looks depressed. Even the next morning you can see his hangover, and as he goes on growing older it becomes more and more difficult. This difference has to be understood. The woman is on the receptive end — she has to be, because she has to become a mother, she needs more energy. But her orgasm has a totally different way of happening. Man’s sexuality is local, like local anesthesia.
A woman’s body is sexual all over, and unless her whole body starts trembling with joy, each cell of her body starts becoming involved, she cannot have an orgasmic explosion. So it is not only in your case, it is the case for almost ninety-nine percent of women around the world. The whole situation has to be changed. The woman should not be under the man. In the first place it is ugly — man has a stronger body, the woman is more fragile. She should be on top of the man, not the man on top of the woman.
Secondly, man should remain silent, inactive, so that his orgasm is not finished within two minutes. If you are silent and let the woman go crazy on top of your chest it will give her good exercise and it will bring her to an explosion of orgasmic energy. It takes time for her whole body to warm up, and if you are not inactive there is no time. So you meet, but the meeting is not of beauty, of love, but just utilitarian. try with your girlfriend what I am saying. You be the inactive partner and let her be the active partner. Allow her to be uninhibited.
She has not to behave like a lady, she has to behave like an authentic woman. The lady is just created by man; woman is created by existence. You have to fill the gap between her orgasms. The gap can be filled in only one way, that you remain very inactive, silent, and enjoy her going crazy. And she will have multiple orgasms. You should end the game by your orgasm, but you should not begin with it. And your woman will not call you a little boring. You will be a really interesting, real wonderful guy who is behaving like a lady!
Keep your eyes closed so that she is not inhibited by your eyes. So she can do anything — movement of the hands, movement of the body, moaning, groaning, shouting… Until she says, “Hari Om Tat Sat!” you are not allowed to be alive, you simply remain silent. This should be the indication. “Hari Om Tat Sat” simply means: this orgasmic explosion, this is the truth. Then she will be mad after you. Right now you must be behaving stupidly, as most of the men in the world do.
The second thing you say: “My girlfriend is saying that I am not very juicy.” So become a little more juicy! To become juicy is not very difficult. The juice of all kinds of fruits is available everywhere. Drink more juice, less solid food. She is giving you good advice and you in your stupidity are thinking that she is condemning you. When she says, “You are very dependent and a victim,” I can see even through your question that she is right.
A victim you are, just as every human being is a victim — a victim of stupid ideologies, which have created strange guilt feelings and do not allow you to be playful. Although you may be making love, you know you are committing a sin and that hell is not far off.
Becky Goldberg was telling Goldberg, “You are a great lover.”
Goldberg said, “But you never told me this before. I was waiting for somebody to say that I am a great lover, but I dropped the idea because it seems I am not.”
Becky Goldberg said to him, “No, you are a great lover, and I wanted to say it to you many times, but you were not there!” … making love to Becky, and Goldberg is not there. He is counting his money, doing his accounts, and his mind is doing thousands of things.
In every bed where there are two lovers there are at least — I mean minimum — four people. There are more inventive people — they may have a whole crowd in the bed. The woman is making love to Goldberg and thinking of Muhammad Ali. Goldberg is making love as a duty and is thinking of so many beautiful actresses; but his mind is not there, and neither is his wife’s mind there. Their minds are in their dreams.
A man told his friend, “Last night I had a tremendous dream. I have to tell you. I have been waiting for the morning to tell you the dream.” The man said, “What kind of dream?”
He said, “I went fishing in my dream and I caught such big fish that even to draw in one big fish was a strenuous job for me, and I caught so many fish. I don’t know where these fish disappear to in the day.”
The other man said, “Stop all this nonsense, you don’t know what I have dreamt. I found in my dream, on one side of me, Sophia Loren, absolutely nude. And I said, `My God, have I reached heaven?’ And on the other side was another beautiful woman. It was impossible to judge who was more beautiful.”
The other friend became very angry and he said, “You idiot! You pretend to be my best friend. Why didn’t you call me?” He said, “I did call, but your wife said you had gone fishing.”
Nobody is where you think he is. Nobody is at home. While making love make it a meditative process. Your whole presence has to be there, showering on the woman you love. The woman has to be there, showering all her beauty and grace on her lover. Then you will not be a victim, otherwise you are a victim. And the most important part will be that you will not feel guilty and depressed. No creative person feels depressed and guilty. His participation in the universe by his creative actions makes him tremendously fulfilled and gives him dignity.
That is the very birthright of every man, but very few people claim it. And there is no difficulty, it is so easy to use energy in creative fields. Paint, do gardening, grow flowers, write poetry, learn music, dance. Learn anything that changes your destructive energy into creative energy, and immediately the big No will become even a bigger Yes. Then you will not be angry at existence, you will be grateful. You will not be against life. How can a creative person be against life, love? It is impossible, it has never happened.
It is only the uncreative people who are against everything. Your girl has raised very important questions for your life. The easiest way would be to change the girlfriend, but I suggest that your girlfriend is certainly a friend to you and that whatever she has said is absolutely sincere, authentic. Be grateful to her and start changing things. The day your girlfriend accepts you as juicy, as interesting, will be a great day in your life. So don’t be a coward and change girlfriends just because this girlfriend creates trouble in your mind, and you want to find some other girlfriend.
You must know of my disciples here. You are fortunate to find a very compassionate girl. Your next choice will be very difficult; she will make you feel absolutely guilty and unworthy. Because what have you done to be worthy? What have you done not to be boring? What have you done to declare your independence? What have you done not to be a victim?
It is time you should do it. You will remain always grateful to your girlfriend. I would like to tell your girlfriend, “Go on hitting this fellow until you are satisfied that he is not boring, but full of juice, utterly interesting, playful, celebrating. You may lose him somewhere on the path of life, but you will have prepared him for some other woman; otherwise the way he is now he is going to torture many women and torture himself.”
The Science of Pranayama
Tasmin sati svasaprasvasayor-gativicchedah pranayamah—“Regulation of breath or the control of Prana is the stoppage of inhalation and exhalation, which follows after securing that steadiness of posture or seat.”
This is the definition of Pranayama in the Yoga-sutras of Patanjali.
‘Svasa’ means inspiratory breath. ‘Prasvasa’ means expiratory breath. You can take up the practice of Pranayama after you have gained steadiness in your Asana (seat). If you can sit for 3 hour in one Asana, continuously at one stretch, you have gained mastery over the Asana. If you are able to sit from half to one hour even, you can take up the practice of Pranayama. You can hardly make any spiritual progress without the practice of Pranayama.
Prana is Vyashti, when the individual is concerned. The sum total of the cosmic energy or cosmic Prana is Hiranyagarbha who is known as the floating ‘Golden-Egg’. Hiranyagarbha is Samashti Prana. One match stick is Vyashti (single). The whole match box is Samashti. A single mango-tree is Vyashti. The whole mango grove is Samashti. The energy in the body is Prana. By controlling the motion of the lungs or respiratory organs, we can control the Prana that is vibrating inside. By control of Prana, the mind can be easily controlled, because the mind is fastened to the Prana, like the bird to the string. Just as the bird that is tied to a post by a string, after flying here and there, finds its resting place in the post, so also this mind-bird after running hither and thither, in various sensual objects, finds its resting place during deep sleep in the Prana.
Akilandeshwari – Arabhi
The same Chakras that are referred to in Kam.Nav are referred here too, and in the same order.
The “Shrividya” upasana (with its Nava-avaranas,Chakras and various Yoginis) must be referred here.
The jujavanti kriti too, has only general and metaphysical attributes and no references to the Kshetra(Thiruvanaikka – referred to as Samajatavi in Jampupate) or to Jambulingeshwara.
May be the Shrichakras that were installed by Shri Adi Shankara as the ear-ornaments (Tatankas) of Akhilandeshwari, did the trick, transporting MD to another plane!
Another interesting info about Thiruvanaikka (which is now part of Trichy) is that Madurai and Thiruvanaikka are considered the sites of Mantrini and Dandini , who are the Minister and Commander of Shri Lalita Tripurasundari ( actually diff. forms of Herself)
The philosophy of information (PI) is the area of research that studies conceptual issues arising at the intersection of computer science, information technology, and philosophy.
1. the critical investigation of the conceptual nature and basic principles of information, including its dynamics, utilisation and sciences
2. the elaboration and application of information-theoretic and computational methodologies to philosophical problems.
1.1 Logic of information
1.3 Study of language and information
2 Defininitions of “information”
2.2 Shannon and Weaver
3 Philosophical directions
3.1 Information and society
Semiotics, also called semiotic studies or (in the Saussurean tradition) semiology, is the study of signs and sign processes (semiosis), indication, designation, likeness, analogy, metaphor, symbolism, signification, and communication. Semiotics is closely related to the field of linguistics, which, for its part, studies the structure and meaning of language more specifically. Semiotics is often divided into three branches:
Semantics: Relation between signs and the things to which they refer; their denotata, or meaning
Syntactics: Relations among signs in formal structures
Pragmatics: Relation between signs and the effects they have on the people who use them
Semiotics is frequently seen as having important anthropological dimensions; for example, Umberto Eco proposes that every cultural phenomenon can be studied as communication. However, some semioticians focus on the logical dimensions of the science. They examine areas belonging also to the natural sciences – such as how organisms make predictions about, and adapt to, their semiotic niche in the world (see semiosis). In general, semiotic theories take signs or sign systems as their object of study: the communication of information in living organisms is covered in biosemiotics or zoosemiosis.
Syntactics is the branch of semiotics that deals with the formal properties of signs and symbols. More precisely, syntactics deals with the “rules that govern how words are combined to form phrases and sentences.” Charles Morris adds that semantics deals with the relation of signs to their designata and the objects which they may or do denote; and, pragmatics deals with the biotic aspects of semiosis, that is, with all the psychological, biological, and sociological phenomena which occur in the functioning of signs.
Cybernetics is the interdisciplinary study of the structure of regulatory systems. Cybernetics is closely related to control theory and systems theory, at least in its first-order form. (Second-order cybernetics has crucial methodological and epistemological implications that are fundamental to the field as a whole.) Both in its origins and in its evolution in the second half of the 20th century, cybernetics is equally applicable to physical and social (that is, language-based) systems.
A code is a rule for converting a piece of information (for example, a letter, word, phrase, or gesture) into another form or representation (one sign into another sign), not necessarily of the same type.
In communications and information processing, encoding is the process by which information from a source is converted into symbols to be communicated. Decoding is the reverse process, converting these code symbols back into information understandable by a receiver.
One reason for coding is to enable communication in places where ordinary spoken or written language is difficult or impossible. For example, semaphore, where the configuration of flags held signaller or the arms of a semaphore tower encodes parts of the message, typically individual letters and numbers. Another person standing a great distance away can interpret the flags and reproduce the words sent.
Floating signifiers or empty signifiers is a term used in semiotics to denote signifiers without referents, such as a word that doesn’t point to any actual object or agreed upon meaning.
In religious studies and social philosophy, hermeneutics (English pronunciation: /hɜrməˈn(j)uːtɨks/) is the study of the theory and practice of interpretation. Traditional hermeneutics—which includes Biblical hermeneutics—refers to the study of the interpretation of written texts, especially texts in the areas of literature, religion and law. Contemporary, or modern, hermeneutics encompasses not only issues involving the written text, but everything in the interpretative process. This includes verbal and nonverbal forms of communication as well as prior aspects that affect communication, such as presuppositions, preunderstandings, the meaning and philosophy of language, and semiotics. Philosophical hermeneutics refers primarily to Hans-Georg Gadamer’s theory of knowledge as developed in Truth and Method, and sometimes to Paul Ricoeur. Hermeneutic consistency refers to analysis of texts for coherent explanation. A hermeneutic (singular) refers to one particular method or strand of interpretation. See also double hermeneutic.
The terms exegesis and hermeneutics are sometimes used interchangeably because exegesis focuses primarily on the written text. Hermeneutics however is a more widely defined discipline of interpretation theory including the entire framework of the interpretive process and, encompassing all forms of communication and expression; written, verbal, artistic, geo-political, physiological, sociological etc.
Information theory is a branch of applied mathematics and electrical engineering involving the quantification of information. Information theory was developed by Claude E. Shannon to find fundamental limits on signal processing operations such as compressing data and on reliably storing and communicating data. Since its inception it has broadened to find applications in many other areas, including statistical inference, natural language processing, cryptography generally, networks other than communication networks — as in neurobiology, the evolution and function of molecular codes, model selection in ecology, thermal physics, quantum computing, plagiarism detection and other forms of data analysis.
A key measure of information is known as entropy, which is usually expressed by the average number of bits needed for storage or communication. Entropy quantifies the uncertainty involved in predicting the value of a random variable. For example, specifying the outcome of a fair coin flip (two equally likely outcomes) provides less information (lower entropy) than specifying the outcome from a roll of a die (six equally likely outcomes).
Applications of fundamental topics of information theory include lossless data compression (e.g. ZIP files), lossy data compression (e.g. MP3s and JPGs), and channel coding (e.g. for DSL lines). The field is at the intersection of mathematics, statistics, computer science, physics, neurobiology, and electrical engineering. Its impact has been crucial to the success of the Voyager missions to deep space, the invention of the compact disc, the feasibility of mobile phones, the development of the Internet, the study of linguistics and of human perception, the understanding of black holes, and numerous other fields. Important sub-fields of information theory are source coding, channel coding, algorithmic complexity theory, algorithmic information theory, information-theoretic security, and measures of information.
International Association for Semiotic Studies
International Association for Semiotic Studies (Association Internationale de Sémiotique, IASS-AIS) is the major world organisation of semioticians, established in 1969.
The founding members of the Association include Algirdas Julien Greimas, Roman Jakobson, Julia Kristeva, Emile Benveniste, André Martinet, Roland Barthes, Umberto Eco, Thomas A. Sebeok, and Juri Lotman.
The official journal of the Association is Semiotica, published by Mouton de Gruyter. The working languages of the association are English and French.
The Executive Committee of the IASS (le Comité Directeur de l’AIS) consists of the representatives from semiotic societies of member countries (two from each).
The logic of information, or the logical theory of information, considers the information content of logical signs and expressions along the lines initially developed by Charles Sanders Peirce. In this line of work, the concept of information serves to integrate the aspects of signs and expressions that are separately covered, on the one hand, by the concepts of denotation and extension, and on the other hand, by the concepts of connotation and comprehension.
Peirce began to develop these ideas in his lectures “On the Logic of Science” at Harvard University (1865) and the Lowell Institute (1866).
Pragmatic theory of truth
Pragmatic theory of truth refers to those accounts, definitions, and theories of the concept truth that distinguish the philosophies of pragmatism and pragmaticism. The conception of truth in question varies along lines that reflect the influence of several thinkers, initially and notably, Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, and John Dewey, but a number of common features can be identified. The most characteristic features are (1) a reliance on the pragmatic maxim as a means of clarifying the meanings of difficult concepts, truth in particular, and (2) an emphasis on the fact that the product variously branded as belief, certainty, knowledge, or truth is the result of a process, namely, inquiry.
The pragmatic maxim, also known as the maxim of pragmatism or the maxim of pragmaticism, is a maxim of logic formulated by Charles Sanders Peirce. Serving as a normative recommendation or a regulative principle in the normative science of logic, its function is to guide the conduct of thought toward the achievement of its purpose, advising on an optimal way of “attaining clearness of apprehension”. Here is its original 1878 statement in English when it was not yet named:
It appears, then, that the rule for attaining the third grade of clearness of apprehension is as follows: Consider what effects, that might conceivably have practical bearings, we conceive the object of our conception to have. Then, our conception of these effects is the whole of our conception of the object.
(Peirce on p. 293 of “How to Make Our Ideas Clear”, Popular Science Monthly, v. 12, pp. 286–302. Reprinted widely, including Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce (CP) v. 5, paragraphs 388–410.)
Charles Sanders Peirce bibliography
This Charles Sanders Peirce bibliography consolidates numerous references to Charles Sanders Peirce’s writings, including letters, manuscripts, publications, and Nachlass. For an extensive chronological list of Peirce’s works (titled in English), see the Chronologische Übersicht (Chronological Overview) on the Schriften (Writings) page for Charles Sanders Pierce.
please refer :http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semiotics
Yoga is about self-control and awareness of yourself, your body and your surroundings. Hatha yoga consists of postures, breathing, energy locks and energy seals. A mudra is an energy seal. It is a gesture or posture that allows us to control the flow of our energy or life force (prana). There are 25 mudras in Hatha Yoga. Mudras are not restricted to hand gestures, but can be done with the eyes, body postures or take the form of cleansing rituals. The gestures themselves are symbolic of various states of consciousness. However, certain gestures can lead to the state of consciousness that they represent. So, practising a mudra can alter your state of consciousness.
Mudras are not confined to yoga. Some of them are international signs. Consider the ubiquitous handshake. What does it say? ‘Hello, pleased to meet you’. It is a physical touch with someone else, and in the old days it said ‘Look, I carry no weapon’. In ancient times the gods were called by raising both arms to the sky. As Christianity became powerful this gesture was prohibited and was then partially integrated into the Christian teachings during Mass. Hand gestures are prevalent in our lives today. When a friend goes for an interview we ‘hold thumbs’ for them. We clap at the theatre to show our appreciation. One of the first gestures and words that a small child learns to use together is to wave and say ‘bye bye’. We hold hands with our loved ones and some of us stick our middle finger into the air when another driver cuts us off. These gestures are understood by all and they carry certain energies.
Most of us enjoy watching Indian dancing but we have no idea that an intricate story is being woven by the dancer. All those hand an eye gestures are mudras and are recognised and interpreted by those that know what they mean.
Our hands, like our feet, are made up of reflex zones and are very sensitive. Our hands and feet contain more nerves and endocrine glands than any other part of our bodies. When we practice a hand mudra and connect the fingertips, palms and hands in certain ways we activate, redirect and recharge the energy of our entire being and the body’s energy is magnified. Everybody knows about chakras these days. They are very fashionable! They are energy centres in the body – much like the electricity substations found scattered around any city. However, every body also has 72 000 nadis. These are electric or pranic currents that run from the crown of the head to the toes of the feet and the tips of the fingers. One could compare the nadis to the power lines that supply our houses with electricity. (The major crossings of the nadis form the chakras). Mudras have an intense effect on the nadis. Each finger represents an element, a chakra, a planet, a body organ and an emotion. Each finger is also the ending of a meridian. Mudras can be enhanced with breathing exercises, mediation, mantras, colour, affirmations and music. The thumb is associated with the fire element, the lung meridian and the planet Mars and represents willpower and logic. The index finger is associated with the air element, the stomach meridian and the planet Jupiter. It represents the mind and the power of thought. The middle finger (not to be held up in the traffic) is associated with the ether element, the circulation and gallbladder meridians and the planet Saturn. It represents our spiritual path. Hindus call it the ‘heavenly finger’. The ring finger is associated with the earth element, the liver meridian and the sun (or Apollo, the sun god). It represents vitality and health. The little finger is associated with the water element, the heart meridian and the planet Mercury. It represents communication, sexuality and personal relationships. Our hands are important.
This gesture symbolises the connected nature of human consciousness. The circle formed by the index finger and thumb represents the true goal of yoga – the merging of the individual soul with the universal soul, or the soul of God. The nail of the index finger is placed into the first joint of the thumb. The last three fingers always face down towards the earth in this mudra. It is a gesture of receiving. When the finger touches the thumb a circuit is produced which allows the energy that would normally dissipate into the environment to travel back into the body, and up to the brain. When the fingers and hands are placed on the knees the knees are sensitised creating another pranic circuit that maintains and redirects prana within the body. In addition placing the hands on the knees stimulates a nadi, which runs from the knees up the inside of the thighs and into the perinium. Sensitising this channel helps stimulate the energies at the muladhara chakra. When the palms face upwards in the chin mudra the chest and heart area are opened up.
************************************************************** Hridaya Mudra
This mudra diverts the flow of energy from the hands to the heart area. The middle and ring fingers relate directly to nadis connected to the heart, while the thumb closes the pranic circuit and acts as an energiser, diverting the flow of prana from the hands to these nadis. Hridaya mudra helps to release pent up emotion and unburden the heart.
The interlocking of the fingers in this practice creates a complete cross-connection of energies from the right hand to the left and vice versa. As well as balancing the energies in the body, it helps balance the activities of the left and right hemispheres of the brain.This mudra makes the body and mind more stable in meditation and developes greater concentration, awareness and internal physical relaxation. It redirects energy back into the body which would otherwise be dispersed. The word yoni means womb or source. The yoni mudra invokes the primal energy inherent in the womb or source of creation.